Population nutrient intake approaches dietary recommendations: 1991 to 1995 Framingham Nutrition Studies.J Am Diet Assoc. 1997 Jul; 97(7):742-9.JA
To estimate population nutrient intake levels and to assess adherence to current dietary recommendations for health promotion and disease prevention.
Cross-sectional analysis of nutrient intake estimated from 3-day food records. Median macronutrient and micronutrient intake levels for men, women, and the total population are reported along with the proportions of men and women who achieved intakes compatible with nutrient goals defined by published guidelines.
Adult participants (2,520: 1,375 women and 1,145 men) in the Framingham Offspring-Spouse Study surveyed between 1991 and 1995.
chi 2 Analyses were used to test for gender differences in the proportions of persons who had intakes that met nutrient guidelines.
Population intake levels of certain key nutrients, including total and saturated fat, appear to be approaching recommended levels. High proportions of the Framingham population (70% or more) met current recommendations for intakes of protein, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat, cholesterol, alcohol, vitamins C and B-12, and folacin. About half or fewer met guidelines for carbohydrate; total and saturated fat; fiber; beta carotene; vitamins A, E, and B-6; calcium; and sodium. Important gender differences in the proportion of those meeting nutrient guidelines were observed for 12 of the 18 nutrients examined, including carbohydrate; total, saturated, and monounsaturated fat; cholesterol; fiber; sodium; calcium; and several vitamins.
Although progress has been made toward achieving population adherence to preventive nutrition recommendations, large proportions of adults fall short of guidelines for some key nutrients. Differences in adherence rates between men and women suggest areas for gender-specific, targeted nutrition messages and behavioral interventions.