Transcriptional regulation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene by the Sp family of transcription factors.Oncogene. 1997 Jun 26; 14(25):3039-49.O
In this study, we have localized an enhancer element in the 5'-flanking region of the HGF gene promoter and have identified its functional transcriptional factors. Through transient transfection of NIH3T3 fibroblast cells and gel mobility shift assays, the functional binding site was localized to a short region (-318 to -303 bp from the transcription start site) which has a CTCCC sequence. This motif is also conserved in the human HGF promoter and acts as a binding site for the Sp family of transcription factors. In the presence of NIH3T3 nuclear protein extracts, this enhancer region formed specific DNA-protein complexes which were totally abrogated by excess amounts of consensus Sp1 oligonucleotide. In gel mobility supershift assays, anti-Sp1 and anti-Sp3 antibodies specifically recognized these complexes as was evident by their slower migration. Site-specific mutation of this binding motif resulted in total loss of Sp1 and Sp3 binding and a concomitant loss of enhancer function within the context of the HGF promoter. Furthermore, in transient cotransfection assays, overexpression of Sp1 and/or Sp3 stimulated HGF promoter activity independently and additively through binding to the Sp1 binding site in the HGF gene promoter region. DNaseI hypersensitive analysis of freshly isolated nuclei from NIH3T3 cells revealed that five hypersensitive sites (HSS) are present within the 2 kb region immediately upstream of the HGF promoter. One of these sites was mapped to position -0.3 kb from the transcription start site. These data show that both Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors upregulate HGF promoter activity by binding to the Sp1 binding site at position -318 to -303 bp in the HGF gene promoter.