Crystalloid versus cold blood cardioplegia and cardiac troponin I release.Circulation. 1997 Jul 01; 96(1):316-20.Circ
Cardiac troponin I (CTnI) has been shown to be a marker of myocardial injury. The aim of this study was to compare antegrade crystalloid cardioplegia with antegrade cold blood cardioplegia with warm reperfusion using CTnI release as the criteria for evaluating the adequacy of myocardial protection.
METHODS AND RESULTS
Seventy patients were randomly assigned to receive crystalloid or blood cardioplegia. CTnI concentrations were measured in serial venous blood samples drawn just before cardiopulmonary bypass and after aortic unclamping at 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours and daily thereafter for 5 days. ANOVA with repeated measures was performed to test the effect of the type of cardioplegia on CTnI release. The total amount of CTnI released was higher in the crystalloid cardioplegia group than in the blood cardioplegia group (11.2 +/- 8.9 versus 7.8 +/- 8.6 micrograms, P < .02). CTnI concentration was significantly higher in the crystalloid group than in the blood group in the samples drawn at hours 9 and 12. Three patients in each group had ECG evidence of perioperative myocardial infarction. Eight patients in the crystalloid group and five patients in the blood group had CTnI evidence of perioperative myocardial infarction. CTnI release was significantly lower in patients requiring no electrical defibrillation after aortic unclamping.
Cold blood cardioplegia followed by warm reperfusion is beneficial in an unselected group of patients with a preserved left ventricular function undergoing an elective first coronary artery bypass grafting. CTnI allowed the diagnosis of small perioperative necrotic myocardial areas. The need for electrical defibrillation after aortic unclamping was related to a higher release of CTnI. A further study is necessary to determine whether this technique was beneficial because of cold blood cardioplegia, warm reperfusion, or both.