[Recurrence following radical surgery for prostatic cancer. Analysis of clinical, biological and anatomo-pathological prognostic factors].Acta Urol Belg. 1997 Mar; 65(1):11-8.AU
To better characterize risk factors of progression (or recurrence) of prostate cancer after radical surgery, we analysed clinical and biological preoperative characteristics and post-operative pathology results in a series of 179 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 1994. The mean follow-up in the series is 36 months (24-36). 39 patients treated before radical prostatectomy by hormonotherapy or surgery (TURP, TULIP) were excluded from analysis. 28 patients treated with immediate adjuvant therapy were also excluded from the study on risk factors of recurrence. Clinical understaging is 37% (50/134 patients with stage T1-T2 have extracapsular extension or invasion of seminal vesicles). Preoperative PSA value is related to the pathologic stage. Extracapsular disease was found in 17% and 46% when PSA was < 4 ng/ml or > 10 ng/ml respectively, thereby confirming the poor staging value of preoperative PSA alone. Analysis of the surgical margins demonstrates a statistically significant difference (p = 0.018) between patients with a preoperative PSA < 10 ng/ml (22% of positive margins) and those with a PSA > 10 ng/ml (42% of positive margins). Predictive factors of recurrence were analyzed in the 112 patients who have not received pre- or postoperative treatment. The respective impact of clinical stage, preoperative PSA value, Gleason score, invasion of prostatic apex, capsular perforation, surgical margins, invasion of seminal vesicles or of pelvic lymph nodes, and invasion of intraprostatic, intracapsular or extraprostatic nerves were evaluated. In T3 cases, we observe 50% recurrence (but only 4 patients fall into this group) versus 14% in clinically localized tumors (T1c-T2c). No recurrence is detected when preoperative PSA is < 4 ng/ml; on the contrary 21% of patients with a PSA > 10 ng/ml recurred. Infiltration of the apex does not influence prognosis. In our experience, capsular perforation is a worse prognostic factor than positive surgical margins, the respective rate of failure being 25% and 17% respectively. Invasion of extraprostatic nerves increases the risk of failure compared to capsular perforation alone (31% vs 18%). Seminal vesicles invasion significantly worsens prognosis (50% vs 13% recurrence respectively; p = 0.024). All patients with positive lymph nodes recurred (p = 0.001).