Involvement of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in nicotine-induced relaxation of the rat gastric fundus.Br J Pharmacol. 1997 Jul; 121(6):1105-12.BJ
1. Nicotine-induced relaxation and release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)- and peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI)-like immunoreactivity (LI) were measured in longitudinal muscle strips from the rat gastric fundus. 2. Under non-cholinergic conditions (0.3 microM atropine), nicotine (3-300 microM) produced concentration-dependent relaxations of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (3 microM)-precontracted strips. Under non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) conditions (0.3 microM atropine + 1 microM phentolamine + 1 microM nadolol), relaxations induced by sub-maximal nicotine concentrations (10 and 30 microM) were significantly smaller, while that produced by the highest concentration used (300 microM) was similar to that seen under non-cholinergic conditions. 3. Re-exposure to the same nicotine concentration 1 h later induced smaller relaxations, indicating desensitization. The reductions seen in the second responses were proportional to the concentration used. 4. Under non-cholinergic conditions, the relaxant response to 30 microM nicotine was abolished by hexamethonium (100 microM) and significantly reduced by tetrodotoxin (TTX, 3 microM). The TTX-resistant component was not observed under NANC conditions. 5. NANC relaxation induced by 30 microM nicotine was significantly reduced by a specific anti-VIP serum (approximately 35% less than that seen with normal rabbit serum). 6. Nicotine (30-300 microM) caused significant, concentration-dependent increases in the outflow of VIP- and PHI-LI from the strips; these effects were also diminished with re-exposure. The increases in both types of immunoreactivity evoked by nicotine (300 microM) were abolished by hexamethonium (300 microM), TTX (3 microM) and a calcium-free medium. 7. These findings indicate that VIP and possibly PHI are involved in NANC relaxation of the rat gastric fundus induced by nicotine.