Diabetic retinopathy, promoter (4G/5G) polymorphism of PAI-1 gene, and PAI-1 activity in Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes.Diabetes Care 1997; 20(8):1304-9DC
To examine the relationship between plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) activity and PAI-1 gene (4G/5G) polymorphism and diabetic retinopathy in Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We studied 171 Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes between the ages of 30-70 years in a population-based epidemiological survey. Plasma PAI-1 activity was measured by a spectrophotometric assay and PAI-1 4G/5G promoter genotype by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using allele-specific primers. Retinopathy was assessed by ophthalmoscopy after pupillary dilation and classified as any retinopathy or as nonproliferative and proliferative.
Retinopathy was present in 70 (41%) subjects, and 4 (2.3%) subjects had proliferative retinopathy. Plasma PAI-1 activity was not significantly different among subjects with and without retinopathy (17.1 +/- vs. 19.7 +/- 9.1 arbitrary units (AU)/ml, P = 0.09). PAI-1 activity was negatively correlated with duration of diabetes (rs = -0.18, P = 0.02). In a logistic regression analysis controlled for age, sex, BMI, and duration of diabetes, any retinopathy was significantly associated with fasting plasma glucose concentrations (P < 0.05), 2-h postload glucose (P = 0.02), and HbA1c (P = 0.008), but not with PAI-1 activity (P = 0.48). The prevalence of retinopathy in the three genotype groups differed significantly (4G/4G, 4G/5G, and 5G/5G were 44, 49, and 24%, respectively; chi 2 = 8.22, df = 2, P = 0.016) and remained significant after controlling for age, sex, BMI, duration of diabetes, glycated hemoglobin, and urine albumin-to-creatine ratio in a logistic regression analysis. The odds ratios for retinopathy in subjects with 4G/4G and 4G/5G, compared with the 5G/5G genotype, were 2.0 and 3.1, respectively.
Although diabetic retinopathy in Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes is not associated with PAI-1 activity, subjects with the 4G/4G and 4G/5G genotype had a higher prevalence of retinopathy compared with 5G/5G PAI-1genotype. These preliminary findings indicate that in Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes, presence of the 4G allele of the PAI-1 gene was associated with a higher risk of diabetic retinopathy.