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Level of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in the rat diet alter serum lipid levels and lymphocyte functions.

Abstract

In order to further examine the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) upon blood lipid levels and lymphocyte functions, weanling rats were fed for 6 weeks on high fat (178 g/kg) diets which differed in the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA (100, 20, 10, 5, 1) and in the absolute level of PUFA (17.5 or 35 g/100 g fatty acids). The n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of the diets was decreased by replacing linoleic acid with alpha-linolenic acid while the PUFA content of the diets was decreased by replacing PUFA with palmitic acid. Serum cholesterol concentrations decreased as the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of the low PUFA diet decreased. The ex vivo proliferation of spleen lymphocytes from rats fed the low PUFA diets decreased as the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of the diet decreased; the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes from high PUFA-fed rats was less affected by the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of the diet. Natural killer cell activity was lower for spleen lymphocytes from rats fed high PUFA diets with n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 100 or 20 than for those from rats fed low PUFA diets with these ratios. The natural killer cell activity of spleen lymphocytes decreased as the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of the low PUFA diet decreased. These findings indicate that dietary alpha-linolenic acid has significant blood lipid-lowering and immunomodulatory effects in rats, but that the effect is dependent upon the total PUFA content of the diet. The ratios of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids to other fatty acids (e.g. palmitic, oleic) are important in determining the precise effect of manipulations of the fatty acid composition of the diet.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, UK.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

9250698

Citation

Jeffery, N M., et al. "Level of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the N-6 to N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratio in the Rat Diet Alter Serum Lipid Levels and Lymphocyte Functions." Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 57, no. 2, 1997, pp. 149-60.
Jeffery NM, Newsholme EA, Calder PC. Level of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in the rat diet alter serum lipid levels and lymphocyte functions. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1997;57(2):149-60.
Jeffery, N. M., Newsholme, E. A., & Calder, P. C. (1997). Level of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in the rat diet alter serum lipid levels and lymphocyte functions. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids, 57(2), pp. 149-60.
Jeffery NM, Newsholme EA, Calder PC. Level of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the N-6 to N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratio in the Rat Diet Alter Serum Lipid Levels and Lymphocyte Functions. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1997;57(2):149-60. PubMed PMID: 9250698.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Level of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in the rat diet alter serum lipid levels and lymphocyte functions. AU - Jeffery,N M, AU - Newsholme,E A, AU - Calder,P C, PY - 1997/8/1/pubmed PY - 1997/8/1/medline PY - 1997/8/1/entrez SP - 149 EP - 60 JF - Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids JO - Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids VL - 57 IS - 2 N2 - In order to further examine the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) upon blood lipid levels and lymphocyte functions, weanling rats were fed for 6 weeks on high fat (178 g/kg) diets which differed in the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA (100, 20, 10, 5, 1) and in the absolute level of PUFA (17.5 or 35 g/100 g fatty acids). The n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of the diets was decreased by replacing linoleic acid with alpha-linolenic acid while the PUFA content of the diets was decreased by replacing PUFA with palmitic acid. Serum cholesterol concentrations decreased as the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of the low PUFA diet decreased. The ex vivo proliferation of spleen lymphocytes from rats fed the low PUFA diets decreased as the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of the diet decreased; the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes from high PUFA-fed rats was less affected by the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of the diet. Natural killer cell activity was lower for spleen lymphocytes from rats fed high PUFA diets with n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 100 or 20 than for those from rats fed low PUFA diets with these ratios. The natural killer cell activity of spleen lymphocytes decreased as the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of the low PUFA diet decreased. These findings indicate that dietary alpha-linolenic acid has significant blood lipid-lowering and immunomodulatory effects in rats, but that the effect is dependent upon the total PUFA content of the diet. The ratios of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids to other fatty acids (e.g. palmitic, oleic) are important in determining the precise effect of manipulations of the fatty acid composition of the diet. SN - 0952-3278 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9250698/Level_of_polyunsaturated_fatty_acids_and_the_n_6_to_n_3_polyunsaturated_fatty_acid_ratio_in_the_rat_diet_alter_serum_lipid_levels_and_lymphocyte_functions_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -