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Distribution of intraocular pressure. The Barbados Eye Study.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To provide data on the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) in a predominantly black population, which has a high prevalence of open-angle glaucoma.

DESIGN

Population-based prevalence study.

SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS

Participants (N = 4601) (age range, 40-84 years) who had undergone applanation tonometry measurements in the Barbados Eye Study. Self-reported race was 93% black, 4% mixed (black and white), and 3% white or other.

DATA COLLECTION

A standardized protocol included applanation tonometry and other ocular measurements, fundus photography, demographic data, and an interview.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

The average of 3 IOP measurements at the Barbados Eye Study visit was used to compare IOP by self-reported race. Descriptive data on IOP by age, sex, glaucoma status, and cup-disc ratio were examined in the black population.

RESULTS

The IOP was highest in the population of African origin. The mean (+/-SD) IOP values for black, mixed, and white participants were 18.7 +/- 5.2, 18.2 +/- 3.8, and 16.5 +/- 3.0 mm Hg, respectively. An IOP greater than 21 mm Hg was present in 18.4%, 13.6%, and 4.6% of the black, mixed, and white participants, respectively. In analyses that were adjusted for age, sex, and glaucoma status, such values were 5 times as likely in black than white participants and 3.5 times as likely in mixed race participants (P < .01). Among the black participants, the mean IOP increased approximately 1 mm Hg for every increase in 10 years of age. After excluding persons with any type of glaucoma, suspected glaucoma, or a history of glaucoma treatment, women had significantly (P < .01) higher IOP values; however, no significant IOP trends by sex were evident in the group with glaucoma. The IOP was also positively associated (P < .05) with vertical cup-disc ratios. After 2 visits, the IOP remained 21 mm Hg or less in 21% of the persons with glaucoma vs 64% of those without glaucoma.

CONCLUSIONS

In the black participants, the IOP was higher than in the white participants. The IOP was also associated with age and cup-disc ratios. The results showed that open-angle glaucoma and a high IOP alone have a different distribution by sex; although open-angle glaucoma was more frequent in men, ocular hypertension was more frequent in women. These data have implications for the detection and causation of open-angle glaucoma in this high-risk population.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Preventive Medicine, University Medical Center at Stony Brook, NY, USA.

    , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    African Continental Ancestry Group
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Barbados
    European Continental Ancestry Group
    Female
    Glaucoma, Open-Angle
    Health Surveys
    Humans
    Intraocular Pressure
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Ocular Hypertension
    Prevalence
    Self Disclosure
    Sex Distribution
    Tonometry, Ocular

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    9258228

    Citation

    Leske, M C., et al. "Distribution of Intraocular Pressure. the Barbados Eye Study." Archives of Ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960), vol. 115, no. 8, 1997, pp. 1051-7.
    Leske MC, Connell AM, Wu SY, et al. Distribution of intraocular pressure. The Barbados Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 1997;115(8):1051-7.
    Leske, M. C., Connell, A. M., Wu, S. Y., Hyman, L., & Schachat, A. P. (1997). Distribution of intraocular pressure. The Barbados Eye Study. Archives of Ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960), 115(8), pp. 1051-7.
    Leske MC, et al. Distribution of Intraocular Pressure. the Barbados Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 1997;115(8):1051-7. PubMed PMID: 9258228.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Distribution of intraocular pressure. The Barbados Eye Study. AU - Leske,M C, AU - Connell,A M, AU - Wu,S Y, AU - Hyman,L, AU - Schachat,A P, PY - 1997/8/1/pubmed PY - 1997/8/1/medline PY - 1997/8/1/entrez SP - 1051 EP - 7 JF - Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) JO - Arch. Ophthalmol. VL - 115 IS - 8 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To provide data on the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) in a predominantly black population, which has a high prevalence of open-angle glaucoma. DESIGN: Population-based prevalence study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants (N = 4601) (age range, 40-84 years) who had undergone applanation tonometry measurements in the Barbados Eye Study. Self-reported race was 93% black, 4% mixed (black and white), and 3% white or other. DATA COLLECTION: A standardized protocol included applanation tonometry and other ocular measurements, fundus photography, demographic data, and an interview. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The average of 3 IOP measurements at the Barbados Eye Study visit was used to compare IOP by self-reported race. Descriptive data on IOP by age, sex, glaucoma status, and cup-disc ratio were examined in the black population. RESULTS: The IOP was highest in the population of African origin. The mean (+/-SD) IOP values for black, mixed, and white participants were 18.7 +/- 5.2, 18.2 +/- 3.8, and 16.5 +/- 3.0 mm Hg, respectively. An IOP greater than 21 mm Hg was present in 18.4%, 13.6%, and 4.6% of the black, mixed, and white participants, respectively. In analyses that were adjusted for age, sex, and glaucoma status, such values were 5 times as likely in black than white participants and 3.5 times as likely in mixed race participants (P < .01). Among the black participants, the mean IOP increased approximately 1 mm Hg for every increase in 10 years of age. After excluding persons with any type of glaucoma, suspected glaucoma, or a history of glaucoma treatment, women had significantly (P < .01) higher IOP values; however, no significant IOP trends by sex were evident in the group with glaucoma. The IOP was also positively associated (P < .05) with vertical cup-disc ratios. After 2 visits, the IOP remained 21 mm Hg or less in 21% of the persons with glaucoma vs 64% of those without glaucoma. CONCLUSIONS: In the black participants, the IOP was higher than in the white participants. The IOP was also associated with age and cup-disc ratios. The results showed that open-angle glaucoma and a high IOP alone have a different distribution by sex; although open-angle glaucoma was more frequent in men, ocular hypertension was more frequent in women. These data have implications for the detection and causation of open-angle glaucoma in this high-risk population. SN - 0003-9950 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9258228/Distribution_of_intraocular_pressure__The_Barbados_Eye_Study_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaophthalmology/fullarticle/vol/115/pg/1051 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -