Expression of selenoproteins in various rat and human tissues and cell lines.J Trace Elem Med Biol 1997; 11(2):83-91JT
Various rat and human tissues and cell lines naturally exposed to endogenous or exogenous oxidative stress were examined for their pattern of selenoprotein transcripts. Selenoprotein P mRNA was mainly expressed in rat kidney, testis, liver and lung. In testis, a high phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) but only a weak cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (cGPx) signal was obtained. In kidney, spleen, heart, liver and lung cGPx mRNA levels were higher than those of PHGPx and for both only weak signals were obtained with brain mRNA. The Northern blot results concerning the tissue distribution of cGPx in the rat were fully supported by activity measurements. None of the human tissues revealed a PHGPx mRNA signal, whereas selenoprotein P transcripts were present in all human tissues with the highest abundance in heart, liver, and lung, tissues which also exhibited strong cGPx signals. The gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase (GPx-GI) was only expressed in human liver and colon liver. Liver, the organ that showed the broadest repertoire of selenoproteins, has to cope with reactive oxygen intermediates produced during detoxification reactions. Human cell lines of the myeloic system that may be exposed to oxidative stress during inflammatory processes showed distinct cGPx signals: epithelial cells showed low cGPx signals. Similar cGPx mRNA levels were found in normal human thyroid tissue and thyroid carcinoma cells. Among the human cell lines selenoprotein P expression was detected in HepG2 and HTh74 thyroid cells. Our data confirm the necessity of getting specific information on distinct tissue- and cell-specific patterns of selenoprotein expression as endpoints of selenium supply and biological function of the selenoprotein family. Analysis of total selenium contents of tissues or body fluids only provides integrative information on the global selenium status of individuals.