Expression and mutational analysis of the DCC, DPC4, and MADR2/JV18-1 genes in neuroblastoma.Cancer Res 1997; 57(17):3772-8CR
Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 18q21 is found frequently in various human cancers. Three candidate tumor suppressor genes, DCC (deleted in colorectal carcinomas), DPC4 (deleted in pancreatic carcinomas, locus 4), and MADR2/JV18-1 (MAD-related gene 2), have been cloned and identified from this chromosome region. We have reported recently that LOH on chromosome 18q is observed frequently in neuroblastoma. Alterations of DCC are involved in many human tumors. DPC4 and MADR2/JV18-1 are recently demonstrated to be altered in pancreatic and colorectal cancers, respectively. To confirm if inactivation of the DCC, DPC4, and MADR2/JV18-1 genes is involved in the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma and to clarify the mechanism of inactivation, we analyzed the expression of DCC, DPC4, and MADR2/JV18-1 in neuroblastoma cell lines and primary tumors by reverse transcription-PCR and investigated the mutations in the coding regions of these genes by PCR/reverse transcription-PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism. We found that 12 of 25 (48%) cell lines and 14 of 32 (44%) primary tumors, including 3 with 18q LOH, had absent or reduced expression of DCC mRNA. Expression was more likely to be reduced in advanced (67%) than in early stage neuroblastomas (24%) (P = 0.036), suggesting that inactivation of the DCC gene plays an important role in the progression of neuroblastoma. Altered expression of DPC4 was found in six (24%) cell lines and six (19%) tumors. MADR2/JV18-1 expression was reduced or absent only in four (16%) cell lines and three (9%) tumors. Mutations of the DCC genes were examined in 25 of 29 exons in neuroblastoma cell lines, and those exons in which mutations were found were further examined in primary tumors. We found missense mutations of AAC (Asn) to AGC (Ser) at DCC codon 176 in one cell line and ACC (Thr) to ATC (Ile) at codon 1105 in one cell line and tumor, respectively; polymorphisms of CGA (Arg) to GGA (Gly) at codon 201 and TTT (Phe) to TTG (Leu) at codon 951 in most of the cell lines and tumors; and a silent mutation of GAG (Glu) to GAA (Glu) at codon 118 in four cell lines and five primary tumors. We did not identify any mutations in the DPC4 and MADR2/JV18-1 genes in neuroblastoma. Our results suggested that mutations of the DCC gene may be involved in the pathogenesis of neuroblastomas but failed to account for the relatively high frequency of the altered expression, implying that other mechanisms are responsible for the inactivation of the DCC gene in neuroblastoma. Low frequency of reduced or absent mRNA expression and lack of mutations in DPC4 and MADR2/JV18-1 genes suggested a limited role for these two genes in neuroblastoma.