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Wine as a biological fluid: history, production, and role in disease prevention.
J Clin Lab Anal. 1997; 11(5):287-313.JC

Abstract

Wine has been part of human culture for 6,000 years, serving dietary and socio-religious functions. Its production takes place on every continent, and its chemical composition is profoundly influenced by enological techniques, the grape cultivar from which it originates, and climatic factors. In addition to ethanol, which in moderate consumption can reduce mortality from coronary heart disease by increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and inhibiting platelet aggregation, wine (especially red wine) contains a range of polyphenols that have desirable biological properties. These include the phenolic acids (p-coumaric, cinnamic, caffeic, gentisic, ferulic, and vanillic acids), trihydroxy stilbenes (resveratrol and polydatin), and flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, and quercetin). They are synthesized by a common pathway from phenylalanine involving polyketide condensation reactions. Metabolic regulation is provided by competition between resveratrol synthase and chalcone synthase for a common precursor pool of acyl-CoA derivatives. Polymeric aggregation gives rise, in turn to the viniferins (potent antifungal agents) and procyanidins (strong antioxidants that also inhibit platelet aggregation). The antioxidant effects of red wine and of its major polyphenols have been demonstrated in many experimental systems spanning the range from in vitro studies (human low-density lipoprotein, liposomes, macrophages, cultured cells) to investigations in healthy human subjects. Several of these compounds (notably catechin, quercetin, and resveratrol) promote nitric oxide production by vascular endothelium; inhibit the synthesis of thromboxane in platelets and leukotriene in neutrophils, modulate the synthesis and secretion of lipoproteins in whole animals and human cell lines, and arrest tumour growth as well as inhibit carcinogenesis in different experimental models. Target mechanisms to account for these effects include inhibition of phospholipase A2 and cyclo-oxygenase, inhibition of phosphodiesterase with increase in cyclic nucleotide concentrations, and inhibition of several protein kinases involved in cell signalling. Although their bioavailability remains to be fully established, red wine provides a more favourable milieu than fruits and vegetables, their other dietary source in humans.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Banting Institute, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Historical Article
Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

9292395

Citation

Soleas, G J., et al. "Wine as a Biological Fluid: History, Production, and Role in Disease Prevention." Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, vol. 11, no. 5, 1997, pp. 287-313.
Soleas GJ, Diamandis EP, Goldberg DM. Wine as a biological fluid: history, production, and role in disease prevention. J Clin Lab Anal. 1997;11(5):287-313.
Soleas, G. J., Diamandis, E. P., & Goldberg, D. M. (1997). Wine as a biological fluid: history, production, and role in disease prevention. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, 11(5), 287-313.
Soleas GJ, Diamandis EP, Goldberg DM. Wine as a Biological Fluid: History, Production, and Role in Disease Prevention. J Clin Lab Anal. 1997;11(5):287-313. PubMed PMID: 9292395.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Wine as a biological fluid: history, production, and role in disease prevention. AU - Soleas,G J, AU - Diamandis,E P, AU - Goldberg,D M, PY - 1997/1/1/pubmed PY - 2000/6/20/medline PY - 1997/1/1/entrez SP - 287 EP - 313 JF - Journal of clinical laboratory analysis JO - J. Clin. Lab. Anal. VL - 11 IS - 5 N2 - Wine has been part of human culture for 6,000 years, serving dietary and socio-religious functions. Its production takes place on every continent, and its chemical composition is profoundly influenced by enological techniques, the grape cultivar from which it originates, and climatic factors. In addition to ethanol, which in moderate consumption can reduce mortality from coronary heart disease by increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and inhibiting platelet aggregation, wine (especially red wine) contains a range of polyphenols that have desirable biological properties. These include the phenolic acids (p-coumaric, cinnamic, caffeic, gentisic, ferulic, and vanillic acids), trihydroxy stilbenes (resveratrol and polydatin), and flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, and quercetin). They are synthesized by a common pathway from phenylalanine involving polyketide condensation reactions. Metabolic regulation is provided by competition between resveratrol synthase and chalcone synthase for a common precursor pool of acyl-CoA derivatives. Polymeric aggregation gives rise, in turn to the viniferins (potent antifungal agents) and procyanidins (strong antioxidants that also inhibit platelet aggregation). The antioxidant effects of red wine and of its major polyphenols have been demonstrated in many experimental systems spanning the range from in vitro studies (human low-density lipoprotein, liposomes, macrophages, cultured cells) to investigations in healthy human subjects. Several of these compounds (notably catechin, quercetin, and resveratrol) promote nitric oxide production by vascular endothelium; inhibit the synthesis of thromboxane in platelets and leukotriene in neutrophils, modulate the synthesis and secretion of lipoproteins in whole animals and human cell lines, and arrest tumour growth as well as inhibit carcinogenesis in different experimental models. Target mechanisms to account for these effects include inhibition of phospholipase A2 and cyclo-oxygenase, inhibition of phosphodiesterase with increase in cyclic nucleotide concentrations, and inhibition of several protein kinases involved in cell signalling. Although their bioavailability remains to be fully established, red wine provides a more favourable milieu than fruits and vegetables, their other dietary source in humans. SN - 0887-8013 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9292395/Wine_as_a_biological_fluid:_history_production_and_role_in_disease_prevention_ L2 - https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0887-8013&date=1997&volume=11&issue=5&spage=287 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -