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Comparison of n-3 fatty acid sources in laying hen rations for improvement of whole egg nutritional quality: a review.
Br J Nutr. 1997 Jul; 78 Suppl 1:S61-9.BJ

Abstract

The nutritional manipulation of the diets of laying hens to include sources of n-3 fatty acids promotes the deposition of these nutrients into egg yolk, n-3 Fatty acid-rich eggs may provide an exciting alternative food source for enhancing consumer intake of these proposed healthful fatty acids. Care must be taken when designing n-3 fatty acid-rich poultry rations, however, to assure that the resulting egg fatty acid profile is useful for promoting consumer health yet maintaining egg sensory quality. In study 1 laying hens were fed on diets supplemented with graded levels of menhaden oil (MO), rich in both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), for 4 weeks to determine maximal yolk fatty acid deposition attainable without sensory compromise. Yolk fatty acids were analysed for an additional 4 weeks, post-MO removal, to investigate yolk n-3 fatty acid tenacity. Dietary MO levels between 15 and 30 g/kg yielded the greatest yolk n-3 fatty acid content; however, only eggs from birds fed with 15 g MO/kg were considered acceptable by trained flavour panelists. Evaluation of eggs from hens fed with 15 g MO/ kg during storage verified that the shelf-life of enriched eggs was comparable with that of typical eggs. In study 2, graded levels of whole or ground flaxseed were used for the deposition of linolenic acid (LNA; 18:3n-3) and to determine in vivo production of DHA from dietary LNA for yolk deposition. Flaxseed form influenced yolk n-3 fatty acids only when given at 150 g/kg diet. In vivo production of DHA, while significant, was not enhanced by increasing the level of dietary flaxseed nor by grinding the seed. In the third study, a DHA-rich natural marine alga (MA) was investigated as an n-3 fatty acid supplement. Despite similar DHA profiles, dietary MA was found to be more efficient for yolk DHA deposition than dietary MO. These studies suggest that there are numerous viable n-3 fatty acid supplements for poultry rations. It must be realized, however, that the fatty acid profile of the final product varies substantially depending on which supplement is fed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Poultry Science, Graduate Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A&M University, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, College Station 77843-2472, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

9292775

Citation

Van Elswyk, M E.. "Comparison of N-3 Fatty Acid Sources in Laying Hen Rations for Improvement of Whole Egg Nutritional Quality: a Review." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 78 Suppl 1, 1997, pp. S61-9.
Van Elswyk ME. Comparison of n-3 fatty acid sources in laying hen rations for improvement of whole egg nutritional quality: a review. Br J Nutr. 1997;78 Suppl 1:S61-9.
Van Elswyk, M. E. (1997). Comparison of n-3 fatty acid sources in laying hen rations for improvement of whole egg nutritional quality: a review. The British Journal of Nutrition, 78 Suppl 1, S61-9.
Van Elswyk ME. Comparison of N-3 Fatty Acid Sources in Laying Hen Rations for Improvement of Whole Egg Nutritional Quality: a Review. Br J Nutr. 1997;78 Suppl 1:S61-9. PubMed PMID: 9292775.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparison of n-3 fatty acid sources in laying hen rations for improvement of whole egg nutritional quality: a review. A1 - Van Elswyk,M E, PY - 1997/7/1/pubmed PY - 1997/9/18/medline PY - 1997/7/1/entrez SP - S61 EP - 9 JF - The British journal of nutrition JO - Br. J. Nutr. VL - 78 Suppl 1 N2 - The nutritional manipulation of the diets of laying hens to include sources of n-3 fatty acids promotes the deposition of these nutrients into egg yolk, n-3 Fatty acid-rich eggs may provide an exciting alternative food source for enhancing consumer intake of these proposed healthful fatty acids. Care must be taken when designing n-3 fatty acid-rich poultry rations, however, to assure that the resulting egg fatty acid profile is useful for promoting consumer health yet maintaining egg sensory quality. In study 1 laying hens were fed on diets supplemented with graded levels of menhaden oil (MO), rich in both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), for 4 weeks to determine maximal yolk fatty acid deposition attainable without sensory compromise. Yolk fatty acids were analysed for an additional 4 weeks, post-MO removal, to investigate yolk n-3 fatty acid tenacity. Dietary MO levels between 15 and 30 g/kg yielded the greatest yolk n-3 fatty acid content; however, only eggs from birds fed with 15 g MO/kg were considered acceptable by trained flavour panelists. Evaluation of eggs from hens fed with 15 g MO/ kg during storage verified that the shelf-life of enriched eggs was comparable with that of typical eggs. In study 2, graded levels of whole or ground flaxseed were used for the deposition of linolenic acid (LNA; 18:3n-3) and to determine in vivo production of DHA from dietary LNA for yolk deposition. Flaxseed form influenced yolk n-3 fatty acids only when given at 150 g/kg diet. In vivo production of DHA, while significant, was not enhanced by increasing the level of dietary flaxseed nor by grinding the seed. In the third study, a DHA-rich natural marine alga (MA) was investigated as an n-3 fatty acid supplement. Despite similar DHA profiles, dietary MA was found to be more efficient for yolk DHA deposition than dietary MO. These studies suggest that there are numerous viable n-3 fatty acid supplements for poultry rations. It must be realized, however, that the fatty acid profile of the final product varies substantially depending on which supplement is fed. SN - 0007-1145 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9292775/Comparison_of_n_3_fatty_acid_sources_in_laying_hen_rations_for_improvement_of_whole_egg_nutritional_quality:_a_review_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0007114597001062/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -