Effects of tyrphostins and genistein on the circulatory failure and organ dysfunction caused by endotoxin in the rat: a possible role for protein tyrosine kinase.Br J Pharmacol. 1997 Sep; 122(1):59-70.BJ
1 Here we compared the effects of various inhibitors of the activity of protein tyrosine kinase on (i) the expression of the activity of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) caused by endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) in cultured macrophages, (ii) the induction of iNOS and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) protein and activity in rats with endotoxaemia, and (iii) the circulatory failure and organ dysfunction caused by LPS in the anesthetized rat. 2 Activation of murine cultured macrophages with LPS (1 microgram ml-1) resulted, within 24 h, in a significant increase in nitrite (an indicator of the formation of NO) in the cell supernatant. This increase in nitrate was attenuated by the tyrphostins AG126, AG556, AG490 or AG1641 or by genistein in a dose-dependent fashion (IC50: approximately 15 microM). In contrast, tyrphostin A1 (an analogue of tyrphostin AG126) or daidzein (an analogue of genistein) had no effect on the rise in nitrite caused by LPS. 3 Administration of LPS (E. coli, 10 mg kg-1, i.v.) caused hypotension and a reduction of the pressor responses elicited by noradrenaline (NA, 1 microgram kg-1, i.v.). Pretreatment of rats with the tyrphostins AG126, AG490, AG556, AG1641 or A1 attenuated the circulatory failure caused by LPS. Although genistein attenuated the vascular hyporeactivity to NA, it did not affect the hypotension caused by LPS. Daidzein did not affect the circulatory failure caused by LPS. 4 Endotoxaemia for 360 min resulted in rises in the serum levels of (i) urea and creatinine (indicators of renal failure), (ii) alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma GT) (indicators of liver injury/dysfunction), lipase (an indicator of pancreatic injury) as well as lactate (an indicator of tissue hypoxia). None of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors tested had a significant effect on the rise i the serum levels of urea, but the tyrphostins AG126, AG556 or A1 significantly attenuated the rises in the serum level of creatinine caused by LPS. In addition, all tyrphostins and genistein attenuated the liver injury/failure, the pancreatic injury, the hypoglycaemia and the lactic acidosis caused by LPS. In contrast, daidzein did not reduce the organ injury/dysfunction or the lactic acidosis caused by LPS. 5 Injection of LPS resulted (within 90 min) in a substantial increase in the serum level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), which was attenuated by pretreatment of LPS-rats with any of the tyrphostins used. Genistein, but not daidzein, also reduced the rise in the serum levels of TNF alpha caused by LPS. Endotoxaemia for 6 h also resulted in a substantial increase in the expression of iNOS and COX-2 protein and activity in the lung, which was attenuated by pretreatment of LPS-rats with the tyrphostins AG126, AG556 or genistein, but not by daidzein. 6 Thus, tyrphostins (AG126, AG556, AG1641 or A1) and genistein, but not daidzein (inactive analogue of genistein), prevent the (i) circulatory failure, (ii) the multiple organ dysfunction (liver and pancreatic dysfunction/injury lactacidosis, hypoglycaemia), as well as (iii) the induction of iNOS and COX-2 protein and activity in rats with endotoxic shock.