The origins of formal paraphasias in aphasics' picture naming.Brain Lang. 1997 Oct 01; 59(3):450-72.BL
Accounts of spoken word production differ on whether aphasics' formal paraphasias derive solely from segmental distortion or whether some derive instead from whole word substitution. Form-related paraphasias produced by nine aphasics during picture naming were examined for evidence of lexical effects (word, frequency, and grammatical class biases) and for the manner in which target phonemes and word shape were preserved. Preservation patterns were consistent with previous descriptions of aphasic and nonaphasic form-related speech errors. Evidence for word and frequency biases was found, as well as a grammatical class bias sensitive to the degree of target-response segmental overlap. In conjunction, the results indicate that formal paraphasias arise, at least in part, via word substitution. The findings are supportive of interactive models with phonological-to-lemma feedback and/or modular models with a grammatically organized lexeme level.