Determination of metabolites of pyrethroids in human urine using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1997 Aug 01; 695(2):217-26.JC
The described method permits the determination of the five most important metabolites of the pyrethroids permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, fenvalerate, phenothrin and beta-cyfluthrin in human urine in one run. The major urinary metabolites of these substances are cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (cis-Cl2CA), trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (trans-Cl2CA), cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (Br2CA), fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (F-PBA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA). After acidic hydrolysis to release the conjugated carboxylic acid metabolites, the analytes were separated from the matrix by means of solid-phase extraction using a reversed-phase column. The components of the eluate were converted to their methyl esters and extracted in hexane. Separation and quantitative analysis of the pyrethroid metabolites was carried out by capillary gas chromatography and mass selective detection. 2-Phenoxybenzoic acid served as an internal standard. The detection limits lay between 0.3 and 0.5 microg per litre urine. The relative standard deviations of the within-series imprecision were between 1% and 6%. The relative recovery rates ranged between 90% and 98%. Using this method we determined the elimination of pyrethroid metabolites in 24-h urine samples from eight pest controllers after indoor application of permethrin. The detected concentrations ranged from 1 to 70 microg g(-1) creatinine.