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Exclusive breastfeeding protects against bacterial colonization and day care exposure to otitis media.
Pediatrics. 1997 Oct; 100(4):E7.Ped

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

We followed a cohort (N = 306) of infants at well-baby visits in two suburban pediatric practices to assess the relation of exclusive breastfeeding, and other environmental exposures, to episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME).

METHODS

Detailed prospective information about the exclusiveness of breastfeeding, parental smoking, day care attendance, and family history was obtained at scheduled clinic visits. Tympanometric and otoscopic examinations were used in the diagnosis of otitis media (OM). Nasopharyngeal cultures were performed at 1-6 months, and at 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months of age to detect colonization with middle-ear pathogens.

RESULTS

Between 6 and 12 months of age, cumulative incidence of first OM episodes increased from 25% to 51% in infants exclusively breastfed and from 54% to 76% in infants formula-fed from birth. Peak incidence of AOM and OME episodes was inversely related to rates of breastfeeding beyond 3 months of age. A twofold elevated risk of first episodes of AOM or OME was observed in exclusively formula-fed infants compared with infants exclusively breast-fed for 6 months. In the logistic regression analysis, formula-feeding was the most significant predictor of AOM and OME episodes, although age at colonization with middle-ear pathogens and day care (outside the home) were significant competing risk factors. A hazard health model suggested additionally that breastfeeding, even for short durations (3 months), reduced onset of OM episodes in infancy.

CONCLUSIONS

Modifiable factors in the onset of AOM and OME episodes during the first 2 years of life include early age at colonization (</=3 months of age), day care outside the home, and not being breastfed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14209, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

9310540

Citation

Duffy, L C., et al. "Exclusive Breastfeeding Protects Against Bacterial Colonization and Day Care Exposure to Otitis Media." Pediatrics, vol. 100, no. 4, 1997, pp. E7.
Duffy LC, Faden H, Wasielewski R, et al. Exclusive breastfeeding protects against bacterial colonization and day care exposure to otitis media. Pediatrics. 1997;100(4):E7.
Duffy, L. C., Faden, H., Wasielewski, R., Wolf, J., & Krystofik, D. (1997). Exclusive breastfeeding protects against bacterial colonization and day care exposure to otitis media. Pediatrics, 100(4), E7.
Duffy LC, et al. Exclusive Breastfeeding Protects Against Bacterial Colonization and Day Care Exposure to Otitis Media. Pediatrics. 1997;100(4):E7. PubMed PMID: 9310540.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Exclusive breastfeeding protects against bacterial colonization and day care exposure to otitis media. AU - Duffy,L C, AU - Faden,H, AU - Wasielewski,R, AU - Wolf,J, AU - Krystofik,D, PY - 1998/4/3/pubmed PY - 1998/4/3/medline PY - 1998/4/3/entrez SP - E7 EP - E7 JF - Pediatrics JO - Pediatrics VL - 100 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVE: We followed a cohort (N = 306) of infants at well-baby visits in two suburban pediatric practices to assess the relation of exclusive breastfeeding, and other environmental exposures, to episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME). METHODS: Detailed prospective information about the exclusiveness of breastfeeding, parental smoking, day care attendance, and family history was obtained at scheduled clinic visits. Tympanometric and otoscopic examinations were used in the diagnosis of otitis media (OM). Nasopharyngeal cultures were performed at 1-6 months, and at 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months of age to detect colonization with middle-ear pathogens. RESULTS: Between 6 and 12 months of age, cumulative incidence of first OM episodes increased from 25% to 51% in infants exclusively breastfed and from 54% to 76% in infants formula-fed from birth. Peak incidence of AOM and OME episodes was inversely related to rates of breastfeeding beyond 3 months of age. A twofold elevated risk of first episodes of AOM or OME was observed in exclusively formula-fed infants compared with infants exclusively breast-fed for 6 months. In the logistic regression analysis, formula-feeding was the most significant predictor of AOM and OME episodes, although age at colonization with middle-ear pathogens and day care (outside the home) were significant competing risk factors. A hazard health model suggested additionally that breastfeeding, even for short durations (3 months), reduced onset of OM episodes in infancy. CONCLUSIONS: Modifiable factors in the onset of AOM and OME episodes during the first 2 years of life include early age at colonization (</=3 months of age), day care outside the home, and not being breastfed. SN - 1098-4275 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9310540/Exclusive_breastfeeding_protects_against_bacterial_colonization_and_day_care_exposure_to_otitis_media_ L2 - http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=9310540 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -