Comparison of effects of 1 alpha-hydroxy-vitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 in man.J Clin Invest. 1976 Jun; 57(6):1540-7.JCI
The effects of short-term treatment with 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 [1,25(0H)2D3] or 1 alpha-hydroxy-vitamin D3 [1 alpha(OH)D3] on intestinal absorption of 47Ca were compared in 41 experiments in normals and 72 experiments in patients with chronic renal failure. 11 patients were studied a second time after treatment for 2-5 mo. Doses varied from 0.14 to 5.4 mug/day to establish dose-response relationships. Urinary calcium was monitored in normal subjects, nine of whom received a constant calcium intake on a metabolic unit. There was an increase in intestinal absorption of 47Ca and urinary calcium in normals receiving 1,25 (OH)2D3, 0.14 mug/day or greater, and 0.28 mug/day or greater augmented intestinal absorption of 47Ca in chronic renal failure. In contrast, 2.6 mug/day of 1 alpha (OH) D3 was required to increase intestinal absorption of 47Ca in both groups. The increase in urinary calcium to maximal levels was delayed during treatment with 1 alpha (OH) D3, 5-10 days vs. 2-5 days with 1,25 (OH)2D3. Moreover, half times for urinary calcium to decrease to pretreatment levels after stopping treatment were greater after 1 alpha-(OH) D3 (1.5-2.7 days) than 1,25(OH)2D3 (1.1-2.0 days). With long-term administration there was a progressive increase in intestinal absorption of 47Ca in the patients receiving 1 alpha (OH)D3; this was not observed with 1,25(OH)2D3. The pharmacologic differences between 1 alpha(OH) D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 may be explained by the requirement for 25-hydroxylation of 1alpha(OH) D3 before biologic effects occur; at low doses (less than 1 mug/day), 1 alpha(OH) D3 competes with vitamin D3 for 25-hydroxylation. With prolonged treatment or larger doses (greater than 2 mug/day),, 1alpha(OH) D3 could accumulate and then be hydroxylated resulting in production of higher levels of 1,25(OH)2D3.