Promoting clinical involvement in hospital quality improvement efforts: the effects of top management, board, and physician leadership.Health Serv Res. 1997 Oct; 32(4):491-510.HS
An examination of the effects of top management, board, and physician leadership for quality on the extent of clinical involvement in hospital CQI/TQM efforts.
A sample of 2,193 acute care community hospitals, created by merging data from a 1989 national survey on hospital governance and a 1993 national survey on hospital quality improvement efforts.
Hypotheses were tested using Heckman's two-stage modeling approach. Four dimensions of clinical involvement in CQI/TQM were examined: physician participation in formal QI training, physician participation in QI teams, clinical departments with formally organized QA/QI project teams, and clinical conditions and procedures for which quality of care data are used by formally organized QA/QI project teams. Leadership measures included CEO involvement in CQI/TQM, board quality monitoring, board activity in quality improvement, active-staff physician involvement in governance, and physician-at-large involvement in governance. Relevant control variables were included in the analysis.
Measures of top management leadership for quality and board leadership for quality showed significant, positive relationships with measures of clinical involvement in CQI/TQM. Active-staff physician involvement in governance showed positive, significant relationships with clinical involvement measures, while physician-at-large involvement in governance showed significant, negative relationships.
Study results suggest that leadership from the top promotes clinical involvement in CQI/TQM. Further, results indicate that leadership for quality in healthcare settings may issue from several sources, including managers, boards, and physician leaders.