Effects of antioxidants on the oxidative susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein.J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1997 Aug; 43(4):435-44.JN
An important event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is believed to be the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) initiated by a free radical-driven lipid peroxidation process. Vitamin E acts as a lipophilic chain-breaking antioxidant, while water-soluble chain-breaking antioxidants such as vitamin C or uric acid suppress the oxidation of LDL initiated by aqueous radicals. In this study, we established a new method of measuring the lag time of inhibited lipid peroxidation using the lipophilic azo radical initiator V-70:2-2'-azobis(4-methoxy-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) and investigated in vitro the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation using this method when lipid- and water-soluble antioxidants were added. When the lipid-soluble antioxidant, vitamin E, was added to LDL, the lag time was extended whereas a higher dose of vitamin E led to a shortened lag time of V-70-induced lipid peroxidation in LDL. These results suggest that vitamin E radicals (tocopheroxyl radicals) act as prooxidants during the autoxidation of LDL. It was also shown that the shortened lag time induced by higher doses of vitamin E was restored when lipid- and water-soluble antioxidants were added simultaneously, which suggests that vitamin E radicals derived from vitamin E are subsequently reduced by vitamin C to regenerate vitamin E. Thus, the interaction between lipid- and water-soluble antioxidants provides an important function in maintaining LDL resistance to oxidation.