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Vitamin A deficiency among adolescent female garment factory workers in Bangladesh.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997 Oct; 51(10):698-702.EJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among adolescent female factory workers in Bangladesh, and examine the association between various factors and vitamin A status.

DESIGN

A cross-sectional study.

SETTING

Garment factories in Dhaka city, Bangladesh.

SUBJECTS

Three hundred and eighty eight adolescent girls aged 12-19 y from ten garment factories were selected randomly for the present study. Information on socio-economic conditions and usual pattern of dietary intake were obtained by interview. Anthropometric data and blood samples were collected following the interview.

RESULTS

By NCHS reference standard, 15.5% of the participants were thin (< 90% Wt/Ht) and about 7% overweight (> 120% Wt/Ht). In about 56%, serum vitamin A level was below the adequate level of 1.05 mumol/l, with 14% having vitamin A deficiency (< 0.70 mumol/l). Forty four per cent of the participants were found to be anaemic (haemoglobin < 120 g/l). Food frequency data on vitamin A rich foods revealed that a large percentage of the participants do not take eggs (41%), milk (64%), liver (85%) and sweet pumpkin (85%); while about 40% of the girls take dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV) and 17% take small fish at least four servings a week. The girls who consumed four or more servings per week of DGLV had significantly higher serum vitamin A level than the girls who took three servings or less. There was a significant positive association between the level of serum vitamin A and frequency of intake of DGLV (r = 0.12; P = 0.023). When age, level of education, percapita income, haemoglobin concentration, serum protein concentration, menstruation at the time of blood collection, prevalence of current morbidity, frequency of intake of egg, milk, small fish, DGLV, liver and sweet pumpkin were accounted for by multiple regression analysis, a strong relationship was found for serum vitamin A concentration with age, menstruation, haemoglobin level and frequency of intake of DGLV. For every unit change in the frequency of consumption of DGLV, there was 0.013 mumol/l change in serum vitamin A level whilst taking other factors into account.

CONCLUSION

The data show that there is a high prevalence of subclinical vitamin A deficiency among the adolescent female garment factory workers in Bangladesh, although the anthropometric indices suggest that they do not suffer from acute under nutrition. Consumption of DGLV appears to have an important relation with the vitamin A status of these girls.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

9347291

Citation

Ahmed, F, et al. "Vitamin a Deficiency Among Adolescent Female Garment Factory Workers in Bangladesh." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 51, no. 10, 1997, pp. 698-702.
Ahmed F, Hasan N, Kabir Y. Vitamin A deficiency among adolescent female garment factory workers in Bangladesh. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997;51(10):698-702.
Ahmed, F., Hasan, N., & Kabir, Y. (1997). Vitamin A deficiency among adolescent female garment factory workers in Bangladesh. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 51(10), 698-702.
Ahmed F, Hasan N, Kabir Y. Vitamin a Deficiency Among Adolescent Female Garment Factory Workers in Bangladesh. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997;51(10):698-702. PubMed PMID: 9347291.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Vitamin A deficiency among adolescent female garment factory workers in Bangladesh. AU - Ahmed,F, AU - Hasan,N, AU - Kabir,Y, PY - 1997/11/5/pubmed PY - 1997/11/5/medline PY - 1997/11/5/entrez KW - Adolescents KW - Adolescents, Female KW - Age Factors KW - Anemia KW - Asia KW - Bangladesh KW - Biology KW - Deficiency Diseases KW - Demographic Factors KW - Developing Countries KW - Diet KW - Diseases KW - Health KW - Nutrition KW - Nutrition Disorders KW - Nutrition Surveys KW - Physiology KW - Population KW - Population Characteristics KW - Research Report KW - Risk Factors KW - Southern Asia KW - Vitamin A KW - Vitamins KW - Youth SP - 698 EP - 702 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 51 IS - 10 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among adolescent female factory workers in Bangladesh, and examine the association between various factors and vitamin A status. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Garment factories in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and eighty eight adolescent girls aged 12-19 y from ten garment factories were selected randomly for the present study. Information on socio-economic conditions and usual pattern of dietary intake were obtained by interview. Anthropometric data and blood samples were collected following the interview. RESULTS: By NCHS reference standard, 15.5% of the participants were thin (< 90% Wt/Ht) and about 7% overweight (> 120% Wt/Ht). In about 56%, serum vitamin A level was below the adequate level of 1.05 mumol/l, with 14% having vitamin A deficiency (< 0.70 mumol/l). Forty four per cent of the participants were found to be anaemic (haemoglobin < 120 g/l). Food frequency data on vitamin A rich foods revealed that a large percentage of the participants do not take eggs (41%), milk (64%), liver (85%) and sweet pumpkin (85%); while about 40% of the girls take dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV) and 17% take small fish at least four servings a week. The girls who consumed four or more servings per week of DGLV had significantly higher serum vitamin A level than the girls who took three servings or less. There was a significant positive association between the level of serum vitamin A and frequency of intake of DGLV (r = 0.12; P = 0.023). When age, level of education, percapita income, haemoglobin concentration, serum protein concentration, menstruation at the time of blood collection, prevalence of current morbidity, frequency of intake of egg, milk, small fish, DGLV, liver and sweet pumpkin were accounted for by multiple regression analysis, a strong relationship was found for serum vitamin A concentration with age, menstruation, haemoglobin level and frequency of intake of DGLV. For every unit change in the frequency of consumption of DGLV, there was 0.013 mumol/l change in serum vitamin A level whilst taking other factors into account. CONCLUSION: The data show that there is a high prevalence of subclinical vitamin A deficiency among the adolescent female garment factory workers in Bangladesh, although the anthropometric indices suggest that they do not suffer from acute under nutrition. Consumption of DGLV appears to have an important relation with the vitamin A status of these girls. SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9347291/Vitamin_A_deficiency_among_adolescent_female_garment_factory_workers_in_Bangladesh_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600469 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -