Head posture and craniofacial morphology.Am J Phys Anthropol. 1976 May; 44(3):417-35.AJ
The associations between craniofacial morphology and the posture of the head and the cervical column were examined in a sample of 120 Danish male students aged 22-30 years. Two head positions were recorded on lateral cephalometric radiographs, one determined by the subject's own feeling of a natural head balance (self balance position), and the other by the subject looking straight into a mirror (mirror position). Craniofacial morphology was described by 42 linear and angular variables, and postural relationships by 18 angular variables. A comprehensive set of correlations was found between craniofacial morphology and head posture. The correlations were similar for both head positions investigated. Of the postural variables, the position of the head in relation to the cervical column showed the largest set of correlations with craniofacial morphology. Extension of the head in relation to the cervical column was found in connection with large anterior and small posterior facial heights, small antero-posterior craniofacial dimensions, large inclination of the mandible to the anterior cranial base and to the nasal plane, facial retrognathism, a large cranial base angle, and a small nasopharyngeal space. The possible role of functional factors in mediating the relationship between morphology and posture was discussed.