Jackson-Weiss syndrome: identification of two novel FGFR2 missense mutations shared with Crouzon and Pfeiffer craniosynostotic disorders.Hum Genet. 1997 Nov; 101(1):47-50.HG
Jackson-Weiss syndrome is a rare skeletal disorder characterized by craniosynostosis associated with foot malformations. This condition is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and wide phenotypic heterogeneity. Mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene have been recently identified as causes of this syndrome and of at least four other craniosynostotic disorders, namely the Apert, Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata, Crouzon and Pfeiffer syndromes. We report two novel FGFR2 missense mutations associated with phenotypes consistent with Jackson-Weiss syndrome. Both nucleotide changes predict a serine for cysteine-342 substitution in the second half of the third immunoglobulin-like domain. The replacement of Cys342 with arginine has previously been reported in one of the three Jackson-Weiss cases investigated. Interestingly, both Cys342Ser and Cys342Arg substitutions have been found to be associated with the Crouzon and Pfeiffer phenotypes; a phenotypic heterogeneity, Crouzon vs Jackson-Weiss clinical features, has been also observed for Gln289Pro and Ala344Gly amino-acid changes. This finding indicates the genetic homogeneity of the "heterogeneous" Jackson-Weiss phenotype and a common molecular basis for these apparently "clinically distinct" craniosynostotic disorders.