Acute oral calcium-sodium citrate load in healthy males. Effects on acid-base and mineral metabolism, oxalate and other risk factors of stone formation in urine.Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1997 Jul-Aug; 19(6):417-27MF
The currently preferred calcium preparations for supplementation of food vary widely with respect to calcium availability, effects on systemic mineral metabolism, acid-base status, and the calciuria-induced risk of urinary tract stone formation. In eight healthy males we studied the response to an acute load with alkali(sodium)-containing soluble calcium citrate (CSC) (molar ratio calcium/sodium/citrate approx. = 1/1/1), when taken in three different doses (10, 20, 30 mmol calcium) together with a continental breakfast. Intestinal calcium absorption, serum calcium, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone (PTH) other markers of bone metabolism, net acid excretion and calcium oxalate crystallization in urine were evaluated. CSC evoked a dose-dependent increase in calcium absorption, calcium in serum and urine, but no overt hypercalcemia, and calciuria was low relative to the excess calcium ingested; PTH fell and calcitonin rose (p < 0.05 vs. breakfast alone), but the diet-independent markers of bone resorption declined only insignificantly, while the markers of bone formation and turnover remained unchanged. There was a significant "once-daily" effect (= cumulative 24 h postload response) of CSC: a decrease in urinary cyclic AMP, phosphorus, and ammonium, and an increase in urinary bicarbonate. Soon after CSC intake, urinary calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite supersaturation increased dose-dependently, the calcium oxalate crystal diameter was increased, but crystal aggregation time, which is crucial for stone formation, remained statistically unchanged. Thus, CSC provides calcium in a bioavailable form, creates mild systemic alkalinisation and inhibition of bone resorption, but leaves the risk of developing urinary stones unchanged. Comparative long-term studies on bone growth and the maintenance of bone health, using alkali-containing versus alkali-free calcium citrate, appear worthwhile.