[Effect of insulin on glucose and and fat metabolism in ewes during various reproductive states in normal and hypocalcemia].Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 1997; 104(9):359-65DT
Metabolic indicators of glucose and lipid metabolism, i.e. glucose turnover, insulin concentration in plasma, insulin clearance, concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glycerol and potassium were investigated in nine ewes during three reproductive states in order to examine their importance for development of subclinical ketosis. The increase of insulin in plasma was measured after a continuous 60 min intravenous infusion of glucose (4.9 mmol.min-1). Turnover of glucose and insulin clearance were quantified during a combined euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp. Insulin was consecutively infused in doses of 5 and 10 mU.kg-1.min-1 for about 2 1/2 hours, each. Plasma glucose concentration was adjusted to 5.3 to 5.8 mmol.l-1. The experiments were carried out during non-pregnancy and non-lactation, 4 weeks to 3 days before lambing and 3 to 4 weeks after lambing, each during normo- and hypocalcemia. Hypocalcemia (0.9 to 1.0 mmol Ca2+.l-1) was induced by continuous i.v. infusion of a 5% Na-EDTA solution. Infusion rate was continuously adjusted. The glucose induced increase in plasma insulin concentration was significantly lower during late pregnancy compared to peak lactation and non-pregnancy (46.3, 62.4 and 128 mU.l-1, respectively). The insulin clearance during a hyperinsulinemic clamp with 5 mU.kg-1.min-1 was significantly less during late pregnancy compared to peak lactation and non-pregnancy (3.7, 6.0, 4.8 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively). The concentrations of NEFA and glycerol in plasma during the infusion of 5 mU insulin.kg-1.min-1 were significantly higher during late pregnancy than during non-pregnancy (NEFA: 0.41, 0.04 mmol.l-1; glycerol: 96, 29 mumol.l-1, respectively). The results showed that insulin responsiveness was significantly reduced in sheep during late pregnancy. The insulin-mediated uptake of glucose by muscle and fat tissues and the insulin-mediated inhibition of lipolysis were significantly reduced during late pregnancy compared to non-pregnancy and lactation. The diminished responsiveness of target tissue towards insulin during late pregnancy predisposed the animals for development of subclinical ketosis. Hypocalcemia exaggerated this situation by its inhibitory effect on hepatic gluconeogenesis and by enhancing insulin resistance of target tissues. The factors which are responsible for the altered responsiveness of target tissues towards insulin during late pregnancy are yet unknown. The potassium concentration in plasma showed a proportional increase with increase of the energy deficit of the target tissues. This effect could have been exerted by a decrease in cellular concentration of ATP and a concomitant reduction of the activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. The indicators of glucose and lipid metabolism which were examined in this study showed marked individual variation, particularly during late pregnancy. The marked changes of these indicators with reproductive stages as well as their great variation between individual sheep support the assumption that they are of significance for the development of pregnancy toxemia in sheep.