[Comparative antimicrobial activity of RP 59,500 (quinupristin-dalfopristin), the first semisynthetic injectable streptgramin, against gram-positive cocci and other recent clinical pathogens].Jpn J Antibiot. 1997 Oct; 50(10):844-53.JJ
RP 59,500 (Quinupristin-Dalfopristin) is the first semisynthetic injectable streptogramin antimicrobial agent, which is a combination of quinupristin and dalfopristin in a 30:70 ratio. The components of RP 59,500 act synergically to provide bactericidal activity through action at different sites on bacterial ribosomes. In the present study, the antimicrobial activity of RP 59,500 was compared with those of four macrolides (erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin). Susceptibility testing was carried out by microdilution method on 303 strains of 10 species, especially antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive cocci. RP 59,500 was active against a wide range of Gram-positive cocci including methicillin-resistant Staphylococci and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. The MICs90 of RP 59,500 against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis were both 0.25 microgram/ml, although those of four macrolides were higher than 32 micrograms/ml. The MICs90 of RP 59,500 against penicillin-sensitive, -intermediate and -resistant S. pneumoniae were all 0.5 microgram/ml, although those of four macrolides against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae were higher than 32 micrograms/ml. RP 59,500 also exhibited equivalent activities to the four macrolides against strains of Streptococcus pyogenes. Streptococcus agalactiae and Moraxella catarrhalis. RP 59,500 exhibited the highest activities against Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus avium strains which are intrinsically resistant to most antimicrobial agents. No cross-resistance was observed between RP 59,500 and the four macrolides, which will merit attention in future clinical trials of the agent. The effect of human serum on the MIC of RP 59,500 was studied with strains of S. aureus, S. epidermidis and E. faecalis. The presence of 20% (V/V) serum had little or no effect on the MIC, although 50% (V/V) serum increased MICs by 4-8 folds. Laboratory-induced resistance to RP 59,500 occurred in a stepwise fashion in broth cultures of S. aureus, S. epidermidis and E. facalis strains and the induction rate was slow and no more than four fold increases were observed. Population analysis was performed on RP 59,500 and the reference macrolides against S. aureus ATCC 25,923 strain. Although low frequencies (less than 0.01%) of resistant sub-population were detected with EM, CAM, AZM and RXM, no RP 59,500-resistant sub-population was detected in this study.