Physicochemical characterization of nedocromil bivalent metal salt hydrates. 3. Nedocromil calcium.J Pharm Sci. 1997 Dec; 86(12):1439-47.JP
A crystalline pentahydrate and a crystalline 8/3 hydrate of nedocromil calcium (NC) were prepared. The relationships between these solid phases and the nature of the water interactions in their structures were studied through characterization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Karl Fischer titrimetry (KFT), hot-stage microscopy (HSM), ambient- or variable-temperature powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopy, water uptake at various relative humidities (RH), intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) and solubility measurements. The solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate of the pentahydrate in water at 25 degrees C are approximately 17% greater than the corresponding values for the 8/3 hydrate, corresponding to a greater Gibbs free energy of only 380 J.mol-1 (91 cal.mol-1) for the pentahydrate. The results of DSC, TGA, and FTIR and SSNMR spectroscopy indicate that the water of hydration is more loosely bound in the pentahydrate than in the 8/3 hydrate. On increasing the temperature in open-pan DSC and TGA, the water in the pentahydrate is released in four steps (three steps in crimped pans), whereas the water in the 8/3 hydrate is released in three steps (three steps also in crimped pans). These three stepwise dehydrations are fundamentally explained by their different water environments in the crystal structure of the 8/3 hydrate, which was determined by single-crystal XRD [crystal data: triclinic, space group P1, a = 13.2381(3) A, b = 13.3650(2) A, c = 17.8224(2) A, alpha = 68.202(1) degrees, beta = 86.894(1) degrees, gamma = 82.969(1) degrees, Z = 6]. The asymmetric unit contains three nedocromil anions and three calcium cations associated with eight water molecules. The nedocromil anions act as polyfunctional ligands to the Ca2+ ions, coordinating through both the carbonyl oxygen and the carboxylate oxygen atoms. The molecular conformations of the three nedocromil anions in the asymmetric unit are almost identical. However, the crystal structure contains two different calcium environments, one of which has the Ca2+ ion hydrated by four water molecules in the equatorial plane and by two carbonyl oxygens in its axial coordination sites. In the second environment, the Ca2+ ion has four carboxylate oxygen atoms in its equatorial plane and two water molecules in its axial coordination sites. Two of the carboxylate ligands are twisted out of the tricyclic ring, and the other two carboxylate ligands are nearly coplanar with the tricyclic ring. All of the eight water molecules in the 8/3 hydrate are linked to calcium and carboxylate ions and none are linked to other water molecules.