Importance of albumin, 25(OH)-vitamin D and IGFBP-3 as risk factors in elderly women and men with hip fracture.Osteoporos Int. 1997; 7(5):457-62.OI
The relative importance of vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, nutritional deficiency and low bone mineral density (BMD) as risk factors for hip fracture is not definitely established. In the framework of a case-control study of risk factors for hip fractures, biochemical markers of bone metabolism and nutrition and femoral BMD data were compared in 136 female and 43 male hip fracture patients, 136 female and 44 male age-matched hospitalized controls, and 47 healthy elderly women (8 men). Patients with hip fracture had lower albumin (-10%) and 25(OH)-vitamin D (25(OH)D; -19%) compared with hospitalized controls, and lower albumin (-28%) and 25(OH)D levels (-52%) compared with the elderly controls. Serum values of IGFBP-3 were also significantly lower (-33%) in hip fracture patients than in community controls. BMD of femoral neck was lower (p < 0.001) in patients than in hospitalized and community controls. In hip fracture patients, parathyroid hormone (PTH) correlated weakly with BMD (neck: r = -0.19, trochanter: r = -0.17; both p < 0.05). When all women were pooled (n = 233), albumin correlated significantly (age-adjusted) with BMD at all sites (neck: r = 0.27, trochanter: r = 0.25; all p < 0.001). Albumin, but not 25(OH)D, also correlated with skinfold thickness (r = 0.19, p < 0.0025) and with body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.14, p < 0.05). Male patients with hip fracture had lower BMD and albumin (both p < 0.001), 25(OH)D (p = 0.02) and IGFBP-3 levels (p < 0.005) compared with the controls. When male patients and controls were pooled together, albumin, skinfold thickness and BMI were significantly correlated with each other, but not with BMD. IGFBP-3 was highly correlated with albumin (p < 0.0001), 25(OH)D (p < 0.005) and, less significantly, with PTH (p < 0.05), but not with BMI or skinfold thickness. IGFBP-3 was significantly correlated with BMD at all sites (neck: r = 0.27, p < 0.05; trochanter: r = 0.40, p < 0.0005). In conclusion, low albumin and low BMD were both important risk factors for hip fracture. Low serum albumin was the strongest independent variable correlated with hip fractures. In men. IGFBP-3 was correlated with BMD. The femoral BMD depended only weakly on PTH and 25(OH)D, but was correlated at all sites with albumin, a non-specific parameter of nutrition and general health.