A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of the effects of two eggs per day in moderately hypercholesterolemic and combined hyperlipidemic subjects taught the NCEP step I diet.J Am Coll Nutr. 1997 Dec; 16(6):551-61.JA
We investigated the effect of egg feeding in 161 hypercholesterolemic (HC) or combined hyperlipidemic (CHL) free-living subjects taught the NCEP Step I Diet.
Subjects had LDL-C between 3.36 and 4.91 mmol/L (130 and 190 mg/dL). HC subjects had triglyceride concentrations < 75th %-ile, CHL > or = 75th %-ile. Six weeks after instituting the Step I Diet, subjects were randomized to two eggs or egg substitute daily for 12 weeks.
Mean dietary intake (9-day food records) was within NCEP guidelines and 131 subjects finished with stable weight and adherence > 80%. Placebo group lipoprotein lipids were unchanged at study end for both HC (n = 35) and CHL (n = 21) subjects. Egg-fed HC subjects (n = 44) increased LDL-C nonsignificantly, 0.07 mmol/L (3 mg/dL) (p = 0.49). Egg-fed CHL subjects (n = 31) increased LDL-C 0.31 mmol/L (12 mg/dL) (p < 0.001). HDL-C increased significantly in both HC and CHL groups, 0.10 and 0.08 mmol/L (4 and 3 mg/dL, p = 0.003 and 0.02), respectively. HC and CHL subjects did not differ by apo E phenotype distribution. Postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and LDL subclass phenotype were unaffected by egg feeding in subsets of subjects.
CHL subjects ingesting a Step I Diet in a free-living setting are sensitive to egg feeding and should benefit from dietary cholesterol restriction. The limited LDL-C rise in HC subjects resembles that seen in egg-fed normocholesterolemic subjects ingesting a Step I Diet, but requires confirmation.