Molecular biology of colorectal cancer.Curr Probl Cancer. 1997 Sep-Oct; 21(5):233-300.CP
Colorectal cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Western populations. This cancer develops as a result of the pathologic transformation of normal colonic epithelium to an adenomatous polyp and ultimately an invasive cancer. The multistep progression requires years and possibly decades and is accompanied by a number of recently characterized genetic alterations. Mutations in two classes of genes, tumor-suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes, are thought to impart a proliferative advantage to cells and contribute to development of the malignant phenotype. Inactivating mutations of both copies (alleles) of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene--a tumor-suppressor gene on chromosome 5q--mark one of the earliest events in colorectal carcinogenesis. Germline mutation of the APC gene and subsequent somatic mutation of the second APC allele cause the inherited familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by the presence of hundreds to thousands of colonic adenomatous polyps. If these polyps are left untreated, colorectal cancer develops. Mutation leading to dysregulation of the K-ras protooncogene is also thought to be an early event in colon cancer formation. Conversely, loss of heterozygosity on the long arm of chromosome 18 (18q) occurs later in the sequence of development from adenoma to carcinoma, and this mutation may predict poor prognosis. Loss of the 18q region is thought to contribute to inactivation of the DCC tumor-suppressor gene. More recent evidence suggests that other tumor-suppressor genes--DPC4 and MADR2 of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) pathway--also may be inactivated by allelic loss on chromosome 18q. In addition, mutation of the tumor-suppressor gene p53 on chromosome 17p appears to be a late phenomenon in colorectal carcinogenesis. This mutation may allow the growing tumor with multiple genetic alterations to evade cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Neoplastic progression is probably accompanied by additional, undiscovered genetic events, which are indicated by allelic loss on chromosomes 1q, 4p, 6p, 8p, 9q, and 22q in 25% to 50% of colorectal cancers. Recently, a third class of genes, DNA repair genes, has been implicated in tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer. Study findings suggest that DNA mismatch repair deficiency, due to germline mutation of the hMSH2, hMLH1, hPMS1, or hPMS2 genes, contributes to development of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. The majority of tumors in patients with this disease and 10% to 15% of sporadic colon cancers display microsatellite instability, also know as the replication error positive (RER+) phenotype. This molecular marker of DNA mismatch repair deficiency may predict improved patient survival. Mismatch repair deficiency is thought to lead to mutation and inactivation of the genes for type II TGF-beta receptor and insulin-like growth-factor II receptor. Individuals from families at high risk for colorectal cancer (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer or familial adenomatous polyposis) should be offered genetic counseling, predictive molecular testing, and when indicated, endoscopic surveillance at appropriate intervals. Recent studies have examined colorectal carcinogenesis in the light of other genetic processes. Telomerase activity is present in almost all cancers, including colorectal cancer, but rarely in benign lesions such as adenomatous polyps or normal tissues. Furthermore, genetic alterations that allow transformed colorectal epithelial cells to escape cell cycle arrest or apoptosis also have been recognized. In addition, hypomethylation or hypermethylation of DNA sequences may alter gene expression without nucleic acid mutation.