High prevalence of metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among Saudi population, aged 30-64 years.Int J Cardiol 1997; 62(3):227-35IJ
Study the prevalence of metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia and other cholesterol related risk factors among Saudi population, aged 30-64 years.
Cross sectional national epidemiological randomized household survey.
2059 Saudi subjects, aged 30-64 years. Sample was representative and in accordance with the national population distribution with respect to age, gender, regional and residency, urban vs. rural, population distribution.
Height and weight with calculation of body mass index, blood samples were drawn and assayed for glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein. Low density lipoprotein and cholesterol/high density lipoprotein ratio were calculated. Oral glucose tolerance test was done for subjects with borderline random glucose concentration. The overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus was calculated.
Mean body mass index (BMI) was significantly higher among female subjects 28.3(6) vs. 26.6(4.6), P=0.0001. The 90th percentile of BMI was higher among female subjects across all age groups. The 90th percentile of BMI for Saudi subjects were higher across all age group than sex and age matched European subjects. Mean serum total cholesterol (TC) concentration was higher, however, not significant among female, compared with male subjects. The 90th percentile of serum TC concentration was higher among female, compared with male subjects for all age groups after the age of 40 years. The 90th percentile of serum TC concentration for Saudi subjects was lower across all age groups than sex and age matched European subjects. The prevalence of overweight was significantly higher among male subjects whereas the prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among female subjects. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was significantly higher among female subjects whereas the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance was significantly higher among male subjects. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, whether using cut-off levels of >5.2 mmol/l or >6.2 mmol/l. were similar between male and female subjects. They were lower than the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia among sex and age matched subjects whether from developed or from some developing countries. The prevalence of hypo HDL cholesterolemia, <0.9 mmol/l, was significantly higher among male subjects. The prevalence of total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein ratio, >6.5, for Saudi subjects was higher than some other developing countries.
This study has shown high prevalence of metabolic risk factors for CVD. As atherosclerosis is ongoing process and considering the young nature of this country with 60% of population are <30 years old, one would expect the magnitude of CVD to multiply in the future especially with the continuous exposure to metabolic and non-metabolic risk factors. Several of the metabolic risk factors are modifiable either through change of lifestyle or medical treatment. There is a need to address such risk factors at national and regional level with aim of early identification and prevention. There is a need to monitor the trend of CVD and the risk factors which can be used to assess the efficacy of control programs.