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Docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in retinal phospholipids of piglets fed an infant formula enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: effects of egg phospholipids and fish oils with different ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid to docosahexaenoic acid.
Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Mar; 67(3):377-85.AJ

Abstract

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) is the major fatty acid in the phosphatidylethanolamine of photoreceptor cells. The supply of preformed DHA in milk may play an important role in early human visual development. We examined the effect of adding dietary DHA from yolk or fish oil on its accretion in the retina of newborn piglets fed artificially for 2 wk. DHA-enriched eggs from hens fed rapeseed oil and two fish oils with a high or low ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) to DHA were used. The basic (conventional) formula contained (% by wt of total fatty acids) 17% linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and 1.3% alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). The yolk-enriched formula also contained 0.5% arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) and 0.4% DHA. The fish-oil-enriched formulas contained either 0.3% EPA and 0.2% DHA (from salmon oil) or < 0.1% EPA and 0.3% DHA (low-EPA fish oil used at a low concentration), or 0.1% AA, 0.3% EPA, and 0.9% DHA (low-EPA fish oil used at a high concentration). The low-EPA fish oil used at a low concentration can supply the DHA required without increasing the EPA status but only the yolk-enriched formula allowed the artificially reared piglets to attain the same AA status in blood lipids as with sow milk feeding. The DHA concentration plateaued in the retina when it reached 7.5% by wt of total fatty acids in plasma phospholipids. Yolk phospholipids and fish oils are equally potent sources for supplying the highest retinal DHA concentration, which was found to be 41.7% by wt of total fatty acids in phosphatidylethanolamine (compared with 35% without supplementation). Inclusion of 0.2-0.3% DHA ensures maximal DHA accretion in the retina but cosupplementation with AA is necessary to achieve the status with maternal feeding in blood lipids and to prevent any possible imbalance between n-6 and n-3 fatty acids.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Laboratoire de Nutrition & Sécurité Alimentaire, Jouy-en-Josas, France. alessand@diamant.jouy.inra.frNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

9497179

Citation

Alessandri, J M., et al. "Docosahexaenoic Acid Concentrations in Retinal Phospholipids of Piglets Fed an Infant Formula Enriched With Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Effects of Egg Phospholipids and Fish Oils With Different Ratios of Eicosapentaenoic Acid to Docosahexaenoic Acid." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 67, no. 3, 1998, pp. 377-85.
Alessandri JM, Goustard B, Guesnet P, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in retinal phospholipids of piglets fed an infant formula enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: effects of egg phospholipids and fish oils with different ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid to docosahexaenoic acid. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67(3):377-85.
Alessandri, J. M., Goustard, B., Guesnet, P., & Durand, G. (1998). Docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in retinal phospholipids of piglets fed an infant formula enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: effects of egg phospholipids and fish oils with different ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid to docosahexaenoic acid. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67(3), 377-85.
Alessandri JM, et al. Docosahexaenoic Acid Concentrations in Retinal Phospholipids of Piglets Fed an Infant Formula Enriched With Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Effects of Egg Phospholipids and Fish Oils With Different Ratios of Eicosapentaenoic Acid to Docosahexaenoic Acid. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67(3):377-85. PubMed PMID: 9497179.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in retinal phospholipids of piglets fed an infant formula enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: effects of egg phospholipids and fish oils with different ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid to docosahexaenoic acid. AU - Alessandri,J M, AU - Goustard,B, AU - Guesnet,P, AU - Durand,G, PY - 1998/3/13/pubmed PY - 1998/3/13/medline PY - 1998/3/13/entrez SP - 377 EP - 85 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 67 IS - 3 N2 - Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) is the major fatty acid in the phosphatidylethanolamine of photoreceptor cells. The supply of preformed DHA in milk may play an important role in early human visual development. We examined the effect of adding dietary DHA from yolk or fish oil on its accretion in the retina of newborn piglets fed artificially for 2 wk. DHA-enriched eggs from hens fed rapeseed oil and two fish oils with a high or low ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) to DHA were used. The basic (conventional) formula contained (% by wt of total fatty acids) 17% linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and 1.3% alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). The yolk-enriched formula also contained 0.5% arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) and 0.4% DHA. The fish-oil-enriched formulas contained either 0.3% EPA and 0.2% DHA (from salmon oil) or < 0.1% EPA and 0.3% DHA (low-EPA fish oil used at a low concentration), or 0.1% AA, 0.3% EPA, and 0.9% DHA (low-EPA fish oil used at a high concentration). The low-EPA fish oil used at a low concentration can supply the DHA required without increasing the EPA status but only the yolk-enriched formula allowed the artificially reared piglets to attain the same AA status in blood lipids as with sow milk feeding. The DHA concentration plateaued in the retina when it reached 7.5% by wt of total fatty acids in plasma phospholipids. Yolk phospholipids and fish oils are equally potent sources for supplying the highest retinal DHA concentration, which was found to be 41.7% by wt of total fatty acids in phosphatidylethanolamine (compared with 35% without supplementation). Inclusion of 0.2-0.3% DHA ensures maximal DHA accretion in the retina but cosupplementation with AA is necessary to achieve the status with maternal feeding in blood lipids and to prevent any possible imbalance between n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9497179/Docosahexaenoic_acid_concentrations_in_retinal_phospholipids_of_piglets_fed_an_infant_formula_enriched_with_long_chain_polyunsaturated_fatty_acids:_effects_of_egg_phospholipids_and_fish_oils_with_different_ratios_of_eicosapentaenoic_acid_to_docosahexaenoic_acid_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/67.3.377 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -