Renal calculi in dogs and cats: prevalence, mineral type, breed, age, and gender interrelationships (1981-1993).J Vet Intern Med. 1998 Jan-Feb; 12(1):11-21.JV
Three hundred seventeen specimens of urinary calculi of renal origin from 214 female dogs and 103 male dogs, and 71 specimens of urinary calculi of renal origin from 38 female cats and 33 male cats were submitted for mineral analysis between July 1, 1981, and December 31, 1993. Among dogs, 45 breeds were affected with renal calculi. Thirty-three breeds and a crossbred group were represented among females, but 8 breeds and the crossbred group accounted for 81% of the total. Among male dogs, 30 breeds and a crossbred group were represented, but 7 breeds and the crossbred group accounted for 69% of the total. Among cats, 10 breeds and a crossbred group were represented. Dogs and cats with renal calculi were older than those of 2 comparison population groups. More than one-half of the renal calculi in both dogs and cats were from the 1st known episode of urolithiasis. The risk of formation of renal calculi was found to be higher for cats than for dogs, when compared to other stone-forming cats and dogs (approximately 4.95 per 100 stone-forming cats and 2.88 per 100 stone-forming dogs). Among dogs, breeds at highest risk of developing renal calculi were Miniature Schnauzers, Shih Tzus, Lhasa Aposos, Yorkshire Terriers, and female Pugs. Also at high risk were male Dalmatians and male Basset Hounds. Among small dogs, females generally were at higher risk of developing renal calculi than were males. Regardless of size, terrier breed males generally were at higher risk of developing renal calculi. Breeds of dogs at low risk for development of renal calculi included crossbreds. German Shepherd Dogs, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, and female Dachshunds. When only 1 kidney was involved, the risk of left renal calculus was greatest for both dogs and cats, but bilateral renal involvement was relatively common in both species (19% and 9%, respectively). Among dogs, specimens composed of 1 mineral substance (e.g., struvite) occurred more often in males (58.3%) than in females (37.9%). Female dogs formed renal calculi containing struvite or oxalate more often than did males; males formed calculi containing urate more often than did females. Calculi containing oxalate, apatite, or some combination of these minerals predominated among cats; only 1 specimen from 38 female cats and only 4 specimens from 33 male cats contained neither oxalate nor apatite. Crossbred cats were significantly less likely to have renal calculi than were other breeds. A single renal calculus specimen was identified in several uncommon breeds including Tonkinese and Birman cats, and Affenpinscher, Clumber Spaniel, English Shepherd, and Field Spaniel dogs. No significant differences were observed between male and female dogs or between male and female cats with regard to mineral type of the specimen and the presence of urinary tract infection.