[Noninvasive diagnosis of pathological reflux of blood in the musculo-venous pump of the lower limbs and pelvis in varicose disease].Vestn Khir Im I I Grek. 1997; 156(6):57-61.VK
An examination and following treatment of 469 patients with varicose disease were carried out on the basis of a three-steps noninvasive diagnostic complex developed by the authors of the article. The first step is intended for examining the patients in order to detect injuries of each of the four pumps (the abdomino-caval pump, femur, shin and foot) involved in the venous return. The functional tests developed by the authors were used. The second step included the determination of the degree of injury of the pumps under study with the help of functional rheovasography of the femur, shin and foot. Methods of ultrasonic dopplerography were used at the third step for detecting the causes of the developing blood refluxes.