Improved protamine-sensitive membrane electrode for monitoring heparin concentrations in whole blood via protamine titration.Clin Chem 1998; 44(3):606-13CC
An improved protamine-sensitive electrode based on a polymeric membrane doped with the charged ion exchanger dinonylnaphthalenesulfonate (DNNS) is used for monitoring heparin concentrations in whole blood. The electrode exhibits significant nonequilibrium potentiometric response to polycationic protamine over the concentration range of 0.5-20 mg/L in undiluted whole-blood samples. The sensor can serve as a simple end point detector for the determination of heparin via potentiometric titrations with protamine. Whole-blood heparin concentrations determined by the electrode method (n > or = 157) correlate well with other protamine titration-based methods, including the commercial Hepcon HMS assay (r = 0.934) and a previously reported potentiometric heparin sensor-based method (r = 0.973). Reasonable correlation was also found with a commercial chromogenic anti-Xa heparin assay (r = 0.891) with corresponding plasma samples and appropriate correction for whole-blood hematocrit levels. Whereas a significant positive bias (0.62 kU/L; P < 0.001) is observed between the anti-Xa assay and the protamine sensor methods, insignificant bias is observed between the protamine sensor and the Hepcon HMS tests (0.08 kU/L; P = 0.02). The possibility of fully automating these titrations offers a potentially simple, inexpensive, and accurate method for monitoring heparin concentrations in whole blood.