Response of lens epithelial cells to hydrogen peroxide stress and the protective effect of caloric restriction.Exp Cell Res. 1998 Mar 15; 239(2):254-63.EC
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been reported to be present at significant levels in the lens and aqueous humor in some cataract patients and suggested as a possible source of chronically inflicted damage to lens epithelial (LE) cells. We measured H2O2 effects on bovine and mouse LE cells and determined whether LE cells from old calorically restricted mice were more resistant to H2O2-induced cellular damage than those of same age ad libitum fed (AL) mice. Bovine lens epithelial cells were exposed to H2O2 at 40 or 400 microM for 2 h and then allowed to recover from the stress. The cells were assayed for DNA damage, DNA synthesis, cell viability, cell morphology, response to growth stimuli, and proliferation potential. Hydrogen peroxide-treated cells showed an increased DNA unwinding 50% greater than that for untreated controls. These DNA strand breaks appeared to be almost completely rejoined by 30 min following removal of the cells from a 2-h exposure. The 40 microM exposure did not produce a significantly lower DNA synthesis rate than the control, it responded to growth factor stimuli, and it replicated as did the control cells after removal of H2O2. The 400 microM H2O2 severely affected DNA synthesis and replication, as shown by increased cell size and by markedly reduced clonal cell growth. The cells did not respond to growth stimulation by serum or growth factors and lost irreversibly the capacity to proliferate. The responses of LE cells from old adlib diet (AL) and calorically restricted (CR) mice to H2O2 were significantly different. Exposure of LE cells to 20, 40, or 100 microM H2O2 for 1 h induces a significant loss of cellular proliferation in cells from old AL mice. LE cells from long-term CR mice of the same strain and age were more resistant to oxidative damage at all three concentrations of H2O2 than those of both old and young AL mice and showed a significantly higher proliferation potential following treatment. It is concluded that CR results in superior resistance to reactive oxygen radicals in the lens epithelium.