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Levofloxacin and sparfloxacin: new quinolone antibiotics.
Ann Pharmacother. 1998 Mar; 32(3):320-36.AP

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To discuss the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, spectrum of activity, clinical trials, and adverse effects of levofloxacin and sparfloxacin, two new fluoroquinolone antibiotics.

DATA SOURCES

Literature was identified by a MEDLINE search from January 1985 to September 1997. Abstracts and presentations were identified by review of program abstracts from the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy from 1988 to 1996.

STUDY SELECTION

Randomized, controlled clinical studies were selected for evaluation; however, uncontrolled studies were included when data were limited for indications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In vitro data were selected from comparison trials whenever available. Only in vitro trials that provided data on the minimum inhibitory concentrations required to inhibit 90% of isolates were used. Data from North American studies were selected whenever available.

DATA EXTRACTION

Data were evaluated with respect to in vitro activity, study design, clinical and microbiologic outcomes, and adverse drug reactions.

DATA SYNTHESIS

Levofloxacin and sparfloxacin are active against pathogens frequently involved in community-acquired upper and lower respiratory tract infections, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Both compounds have enhanced activity compared with ciprofloxacin against most gram-positive bacteria, including enterococci, streptococci, and staphylococci, and retain good activity against most Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sparfloxacin has greater anaerobic activity than levofloxacin, which is more active than ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin. Although many clinical studies are available only in abstract form, the clinical data demonstrate that these new quinolones are effective for most community-acquired upper and lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gonococcal and nongonococcal urethritis, and skin and skin structure infections. FDA-approved indications are limited for both compounds to date.

CONCLUSIONS

Levofloxacin and sparfloxacin have improved gram-positive activity compared with that of older fluoroquinolones, and are administered once daily. Sparfloxacin-associated photosensitivity may limit its therapeutic usefulness. Clinical trials confirm that these agents are as effective as traditional therapies for the management of community-acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, sinusitis, urinary tract infections, acute gonococcal and nongonococcal urethritis, and skin and skin structure infections.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, University of Toledo, OH 43606, USA. smartin2@pop3.utoledo.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

9533064

Citation

Martin, S J., et al. "Levofloxacin and Sparfloxacin: New Quinolone Antibiotics." The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 32, no. 3, 1998, pp. 320-36.
Martin SJ, Meyer JM, Chuck SK, et al. Levofloxacin and sparfloxacin: new quinolone antibiotics. Ann Pharmacother. 1998;32(3):320-36.
Martin, S. J., Meyer, J. M., Chuck, S. K., Jung, R., Messick, C. R., & Pendland, S. L. (1998). Levofloxacin and sparfloxacin: new quinolone antibiotics. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 32(3), 320-36.
Martin SJ, et al. Levofloxacin and Sparfloxacin: New Quinolone Antibiotics. Ann Pharmacother. 1998;32(3):320-36. PubMed PMID: 9533064.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Levofloxacin and sparfloxacin: new quinolone antibiotics. AU - Martin,S J, AU - Meyer,J M, AU - Chuck,S K, AU - Jung,R, AU - Messick,C R, AU - Pendland,S L, PY - 1998/4/9/pubmed PY - 1998/4/9/medline PY - 1998/4/9/entrez SP - 320 EP - 36 JF - The Annals of pharmacotherapy JO - Ann Pharmacother VL - 32 IS - 3 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To discuss the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, spectrum of activity, clinical trials, and adverse effects of levofloxacin and sparfloxacin, two new fluoroquinolone antibiotics. DATA SOURCES: Literature was identified by a MEDLINE search from January 1985 to September 1997. Abstracts and presentations were identified by review of program abstracts from the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy from 1988 to 1996. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized, controlled clinical studies were selected for evaluation; however, uncontrolled studies were included when data were limited for indications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In vitro data were selected from comparison trials whenever available. Only in vitro trials that provided data on the minimum inhibitory concentrations required to inhibit 90% of isolates were used. Data from North American studies were selected whenever available. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were evaluated with respect to in vitro activity, study design, clinical and microbiologic outcomes, and adverse drug reactions. DATA SYNTHESIS: Levofloxacin and sparfloxacin are active against pathogens frequently involved in community-acquired upper and lower respiratory tract infections, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Both compounds have enhanced activity compared with ciprofloxacin against most gram-positive bacteria, including enterococci, streptococci, and staphylococci, and retain good activity against most Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sparfloxacin has greater anaerobic activity than levofloxacin, which is more active than ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin. Although many clinical studies are available only in abstract form, the clinical data demonstrate that these new quinolones are effective for most community-acquired upper and lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gonococcal and nongonococcal urethritis, and skin and skin structure infections. FDA-approved indications are limited for both compounds to date. CONCLUSIONS: Levofloxacin and sparfloxacin have improved gram-positive activity compared with that of older fluoroquinolones, and are administered once daily. Sparfloxacin-associated photosensitivity may limit its therapeutic usefulness. Clinical trials confirm that these agents are as effective as traditional therapies for the management of community-acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, sinusitis, urinary tract infections, acute gonococcal and nongonococcal urethritis, and skin and skin structure infections. SN - 1060-0280 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9533064/Levofloxacin_and_sparfloxacin:_new_quinolone_antibiotics_ L2 - https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1345/aph.17178?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -