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An outbreak of Brainerd diarrhea among travelers to the Galapagos Islands.
J Infect Dis. 1998 Apr; 177(4):1041-5.JI

Abstract

In 1992, an outbreak of chronic diarrhea occurred among passengers on a cruise ship visiting the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Passengers (548) were surveyed, and stool and biopsy specimens from a sample who reported chronic diarrhea were examined. On completed questionnaires, returned by 394 passengers (72%), 58 (15%) reported having chronic diarrhea associated with urgency (84%), weight loss (77%), fatigue (71%), and fecal incontinence (62%). Illness began 11 days (median) after boarding the ship and lasted 7 to >42 months. Macroscopic and histologic abnormalities of the colon were common, but extensive laboratory examination revealed no etiologic agent. No one responded to antimicrobial therapy. Patients were more likely than well passengers to have drunk the ship's unbottled water or ice before onset of illness and to have eaten raw sliced fruits and vegetables washed in unbottled water. Water handling and chlorination on the ship were deficient. Outbreaks of a similar illness, Brainerd diarrhea, have been reported in the United States. Although its etiology remains unknown, Brainerd diarrhea may also occur among travelers.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA. edm1@cdc.govNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

9534980

Citation

Mintz, E D., et al. "An Outbreak of Brainerd Diarrhea Among Travelers to the Galapagos Islands." The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 177, no. 4, 1998, pp. 1041-5.
Mintz ED, Weber JT, Guris D, et al. An outbreak of Brainerd diarrhea among travelers to the Galapagos Islands. J Infect Dis. 1998;177(4):1041-5.
Mintz, E. D., Weber, J. T., Guris, D., Puhr, N., Wells, J. G., Yashuk, J. C., Curtis, M., & Tauxe, R. V. (1998). An outbreak of Brainerd diarrhea among travelers to the Galapagos Islands. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 177(4), 1041-5.
Mintz ED, et al. An Outbreak of Brainerd Diarrhea Among Travelers to the Galapagos Islands. J Infect Dis. 1998;177(4):1041-5. PubMed PMID: 9534980.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - An outbreak of Brainerd diarrhea among travelers to the Galapagos Islands. AU - Mintz,E D, AU - Weber,J T, AU - Guris,D, AU - Puhr,N, AU - Wells,J G, AU - Yashuk,J C, AU - Curtis,M, AU - Tauxe,R V, PY - 1998/4/16/pubmed PY - 1998/4/16/medline PY - 1998/4/16/entrez SP - 1041 EP - 5 JF - The Journal of infectious diseases JO - J. Infect. Dis. VL - 177 IS - 4 N2 - In 1992, an outbreak of chronic diarrhea occurred among passengers on a cruise ship visiting the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Passengers (548) were surveyed, and stool and biopsy specimens from a sample who reported chronic diarrhea were examined. On completed questionnaires, returned by 394 passengers (72%), 58 (15%) reported having chronic diarrhea associated with urgency (84%), weight loss (77%), fatigue (71%), and fecal incontinence (62%). Illness began 11 days (median) after boarding the ship and lasted 7 to >42 months. Macroscopic and histologic abnormalities of the colon were common, but extensive laboratory examination revealed no etiologic agent. No one responded to antimicrobial therapy. Patients were more likely than well passengers to have drunk the ship's unbottled water or ice before onset of illness and to have eaten raw sliced fruits and vegetables washed in unbottled water. Water handling and chlorination on the ship were deficient. Outbreaks of a similar illness, Brainerd diarrhea, have been reported in the United States. Although its etiology remains unknown, Brainerd diarrhea may also occur among travelers. SN - 0022-1899 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9534980/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jid/article-lookup/doi/10.1086/515237 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -