Evaluation of in vitro release rate and in vivo absorption characteristics of four metoprolol tartrate immediate-release tablet formulations.Pharm Dev Technol. 1997 Feb; 2(1):11-24.PD
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the impact of formulation and process changes on dissolution and bioavailability/bioequivalency of metoprolol tartrate tablets manufactured using a high-shear granulation process. A half-factorial (2(4-1), Res IV) design was undertaken to study the selected formulation and processing variables during scale-up. Levels and ranges for excipients and processing changes studied represented level 2 or greater changes as indicated by the SUPAC-IR Guidance. Blend and tableting properties were evaluated. Changes in sodium starch glycolate and magnesium stearate levels, and the order of addition microcrystalline cellulose (intra- vs. extragranular) were significant only in affecting percent drug released (Q) in 5, 10, and 15 min. Statistical analysis of data showed no significant curvature. No interaction effects were found to be statistically significant. To examine the impact of formulation and processing variables on in vivo absorption, three batches were selected for a bioavailability study based on their dissolution profiles. Subjects received four metoprolol treatments (Lopressor, slow-, medium-, and fast-dissolving formulations) separated by 1 week according to a randomized crossover design. After an overnight fast, subjects were administered one tablet (100 mg), blood samples were collected over 24 hr and plasma samples were analyzed. The formulations were found to be bioequivalent with respect to the log Cmax and log AUC0-infinity. The results of this study suggest that: (i) bioavailability/bioequivalency studies may not be necessary for metoprolol tartrate and perhaps other class 1 drugs after level 2 type changes and (ii) in vitro dissolution tests may be used to show bioequivalence of metoprolol formulations with processing or formulation changes within the specified level 2 ranges for the equipment examined.