Nasal administration of multiple antigens suppresses experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis, encephalomyelitis and neuritis.J Neurol Sci. 1998 Feb 18; 155(1):1-12.JN
Oral tolerization with acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and myelin basic protein (MBP) prior to immunization with AChR+MBP+ complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) alleviated clinical signs of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG)+experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) and AChR- or MBP-specific T and B cell responses. Tolerance induced via the nasal route needs much less tolerogen and may still be as effective as oral tolerance induction. We now immunized Lewis rats with AChR+MBP+bovine peripheral nerve myelin (BPM)+CFA, which resulted in a multiphasic clinical picture with a combination of clinical signs of the EAMG+EAE+experimental allergic neuritis (EAN), accompanied by massive macrophage infiltrations in sections of muscle, spinal cord and sciatic nerve, and strong T and B cell responses to AChR, MBP and BPM in lymphoid organs. Nasal administration of microg doses of AChR+MBP+BPM prior to immunization with a mixture of these antigens+CFA effectively suppressed the incidence and severity of clinical disease, reduced macrophage infiltrations in sections of muscle, spinal cord and sciatic nerve, and down-regulated autoreactive T cell responses to the three antigens in lymphoid organs. Numbers of AChR-, MBP-, BPM-reactive Th1 type of cytokine interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA expression in lymph node cells were markedly suppressed, while transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) mRNA expression was upregulated from nasally tolerized rats, suggesting an active suppression mechanism may act partly in the induction of tolerance. The results implicate the possibility to establish multiple autoantigen-based vaccination for the prevention of autoimmune diseases in humans.