Molecular ordering in HIV-induced apoptosis. Oxidative stress, activation of caspases, and cell survival are regulated by transaldolase.J Biol Chem. 1998 May 08; 273(19):11944-53.JB
Dysregulated apoptosis may underlie the etiology of T cell depletion by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We show that HIV-induced apoptosis is preceded by an exponential increase in reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) produced in mitochondria. This leads to caspase-3 activation, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, and GSH depletion. Since mitochondrial ROI levels are regulated by the supply of NADPH from the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), the effect of transaldolase (TAL), a key enzyme of PPP, was investigated. Jurkat and H9 human CD4+ T cells were transfected with TAL expression vectors oriented in the sense or antisense direction. TAL overexpression down-regulated glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities and GSH levels. Alternatively, decreased TAL expression up-regulated glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities and GSH levels. HIV-induced 1) mitochondrial ROI production, 2) caspase-3 activation, 3) proteolysis of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and 4) PS externalization were accelerated in cells overexpressing TAL. In contrast, suppression of TAL abrogated these four activities. Thus, susceptibility to HIV-induced apoptosis can be regulated by TAL through controlling the balance between mitochondrial ROI production and the metabolic supply of reducing equivalents by the PPP. The dominant effect of TAL expression on oxidative stress, caspase activation, PS externalization, and cell death suggests that this balance plays a pivotal role in HIV-induced apoptosis.