Prenatal ethanol exposure enhances glutamate release stimulated by quisqualate in rat cerebellar granule cell cultures.Mol Chem Neuropathol. 1998 Feb; 33(2):99-111.MC
Effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on extracellular glutamate accumulation stimulated by glutamate receptor agonists were studied in rat cerebellar granule cell cultures. The prenatal exposure to ethanol was achieved via maternal consumption of a Sustacal liquid diet containing either 5% ethanol or isocaloric sucrose (pair-fed) substituted for ethanol from gestation d 11 until the day of parturition. Neither the basal level of extracellular glutamate nor the increased accumulation of glutamate stimulated by KCl (40 mM) or by ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or kainate (KA) (100 microM each), in cells prepared from the ethanol-fed group was significantly different from that in cells prepared from the pair-fed group. Glutamate accumulation stimulated by quisqualate (QA, 100 microM) or by trans-(+/-)-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (t-ACPD, 250 microM) in the ethanol-fed group was higher than that in the pair-fed group by 116 and 36%, respectively. In the presence of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX, 100 microM), an ionotropic QA receptor antagonist, the QA-induced accumulation of glutamate in the ethanol-fed group was still higher than that in the pair-fed group. In the presence of MK-801 (5 microM), an antagonist of the NMDA receptor, the enhanced accumulation of glutamate stimulated by either QA or t-ACPD was still observable in the ethanol-fed group as compared to the pair-fed group. Addition of (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG, 500 microM), a selective antagonist of the metabotropic glutamate receptor, abolished the enhanced accumulation of glutamate stimulated by either QA or t-ACPD in the ethanol-fed group. Although immunoblotting of mGluR1 and mGluR2/3 did not show apparent differences between the pair-fed and the ethanol-fed groups, the overall results suggest that the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure was selectively through a pathway mediated by the metabotropic glutamate receptor.