Is it possible to control hyperphosphataemia with diet, without inducing protein malnutrition?
Dietary intervention, phosphate (P) removal during dialysis and, especially, phosphate binders are current methods for the management of hyperphosphataemia. Ideally, the amount of P absorbed from the diet should equal the amount of P removed during dialysis, and this must occur in the context of an adequate protein intake. We evaluated the relationship between P intake and protein intake in 60 stable chronic uraemic patients (mean age 55+/-15 years, 25% diabetics, 68% males) on standard 4 h haemodialysis. The dietary counselling was relatively free for protein and calories. Nutrient intake was recorded during a 5 day period, and average daily ingestion of P and proteins was calculated using a computerized diet analysis system. A highly significant correlation was observed between protein and P intake. The mean daily ingestion of P and proteins was 998+/-316 mg and 64+/-19 g (1+/-0.4 g/kg/day), respectively. For an optimal protein diet of 1-1.2 g/kg/day, the P intake was 778-1444 mg. The amount of P removed by haemodialysis, extrapolated to an average week, is 250-300 mg/day. Since approximately 40% of P ingested is absorbed from the gut by uraemic patients treated with intestinal P binders, 750 mg of P intake should be the critical value above which a positive balance of P may occur. This value corresponds to a protein intake of 45-50 g per day (>0.8 g/kg body weight/day for a 60 kg patient). In patients undergoing standard chronic haemodialysis, a neutral P balance is difficult to achieve, despite phosphate binder therapy, when protein intake is >50 g. Additional protein restriction, in order to obtain a neutral balance, may impose the risk of protein malnutrition.
Nephrology Service, Hospital Universitario Canarias, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain., , , , , , , ,
Aged, 80 and over
Pub Type(s)Journal Article