Dietary fat type and level influence adiposity development in obese but not lean Zucker rats.Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1998; 218(1):38-44PS
The development of obesity is influenced by a variety of factors including genetics and dietary fat type and level. To examine the interaction between these factors, male lean and obese Zucker rats (5 weeks initial age) were fed either a low-fat (15% calories) or one of two high-fat diets (65% calories; predominant fat source of either soybean oil or palm olein) for 8 weeks. Body weight, food intake, indirect calorimetry, and body composition determinations were performed. As expected, food intake, body weight, feed efficiency, oxygen consumption, heat production and carcass lipid were all significantly higher in obese compared to lean rats. Dietary fat level and/or type influenced body weight gain, oxygen consumption, heat production, energy balance, and carcass weight and lipid content in the obese but not in the lean Zucker rats. Oxygen consumption and carcass weight were increased approximately 25% and 10% respectively in obese rats fed either of the two high-fat diets as compared to those fed the low-fat diet. The type of fat fed in the high-fat diets also influenced body weight gain, heat production, energy balance, and carcass lipid content of the obese rats. Body weight gain and carcass lipid content were increased (16%-17%; P < 0.005) in obese rats fed the high-fat palm olein diet as compared to those fed the low-fat diet. These parameters were not increased in obese rats fed the high-fat soybean oil diet. In contrast, indirect calorimetry measurements indicated a moderate increase in heat production (Kcal/effective body mass/day; 14.5%) and decrease in energy balance (44.8%) in the obese rats fed the high-fat soybean oil diet as compared to those fed the low-fat diet. Energy expenditure and lipid accumulation were negligibly influenced by dietary fat level or type in the lean Zucker rats. The differential response of the lean and obese Zucker rats to this short-term dietary manipulation demonstrate that genetic background can influence an individual's response to dietary fat type and level. The genetically obese Zucker rat appears to be a good model for further studies of high-fat diet-induced obesity.