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Epidemic of dengue-4 virus in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia, and implication of Aedes hensilli as an epidemic vector.

Abstract

A dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) outbreak in Yap State caused by dengue-4 virus was confirmed serologically and by virus isolation from serum samples collected on each of three island groups. Most DF/DHF cases occurred during a three-month period between mid-May and early August 1995. Five fatal cases, three of which were in children between the ages of four and 11, occurred between June 20 and July 26. A serosurvey conducted in late August revealed anti-dengue IgM prevalence rates of 18% on Yap, 36% on Eauripik, and 6% on Woleai. The majority of residents (93-100%) on the three islands were positive for anti-dengue IgG antibodies, indicating widespread exposure to dengue viruses. The IgG titers indicative of secondary antibody response were noted on Eauripik (6.5%) and Woleai (17%), but were rare on Yap (0.7%). Entomologic investigations implicated the native mosquito species, Aedes hensilli, a member of the Scutellaris Group of Aedes (Stegomyia), as a previously unrecognized epidemic vector of dengue viruses. Aedes hensilli was the most abundant and widespread member of Ae. (Stegomyia) in Yap State, the only species of Ae. (Stegomyia) on Woleai, and the only mosquito species present on Eauripik. New distribution records for mosquito species are reported.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA.

    , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Aedes
    Animals
    Antibodies, Viral
    Child
    Child, Preschool
    Culex
    Dengue
    Dengue Virus
    Disease Outbreaks
    Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
    Female
    Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
    Housing
    Humans
    Immunoglobulins
    Insect Vectors
    Male
    Micronesia
    Rain
    Risk Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    9574802

    Citation

    Savage, H M., et al. "Epidemic of Dengue-4 Virus in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia, and Implication of Aedes Hensilli as an Epidemic Vector." The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 58, no. 4, 1998, pp. 519-24.
    Savage HM, Fritz CL, Rutstein D, et al. Epidemic of dengue-4 virus in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia, and implication of Aedes hensilli as an epidemic vector. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998;58(4):519-24.
    Savage, H. M., Fritz, C. L., Rutstein, D., Yolwa, A., Vorndam, V., & Gubler, D. J. (1998). Epidemic of dengue-4 virus in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia, and implication of Aedes hensilli as an epidemic vector. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 58(4), pp. 519-24.
    Savage HM, et al. Epidemic of Dengue-4 Virus in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia, and Implication of Aedes Hensilli as an Epidemic Vector. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998;58(4):519-24. PubMed PMID: 9574802.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Epidemic of dengue-4 virus in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia, and implication of Aedes hensilli as an epidemic vector. AU - Savage,H M, AU - Fritz,C L, AU - Rutstein,D, AU - Yolwa,A, AU - Vorndam,V, AU - Gubler,D J, PY - 1998/5/9/pubmed PY - 1998/5/9/medline PY - 1998/5/9/entrez SP - 519 EP - 24 JF - The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene JO - Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. VL - 58 IS - 4 N2 - A dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) outbreak in Yap State caused by dengue-4 virus was confirmed serologically and by virus isolation from serum samples collected on each of three island groups. Most DF/DHF cases occurred during a three-month period between mid-May and early August 1995. Five fatal cases, three of which were in children between the ages of four and 11, occurred between June 20 and July 26. A serosurvey conducted in late August revealed anti-dengue IgM prevalence rates of 18% on Yap, 36% on Eauripik, and 6% on Woleai. The majority of residents (93-100%) on the three islands were positive for anti-dengue IgG antibodies, indicating widespread exposure to dengue viruses. The IgG titers indicative of secondary antibody response were noted on Eauripik (6.5%) and Woleai (17%), but were rare on Yap (0.7%). Entomologic investigations implicated the native mosquito species, Aedes hensilli, a member of the Scutellaris Group of Aedes (Stegomyia), as a previously unrecognized epidemic vector of dengue viruses. Aedes hensilli was the most abundant and widespread member of Ae. (Stegomyia) in Yap State, the only species of Ae. (Stegomyia) on Woleai, and the only mosquito species present on Eauripik. New distribution records for mosquito species are reported. SN - 0002-9637 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9574802/Epidemic_of_dengue_4_virus_in_Yap_State_Federated_States_of_Micronesia_and_implication_of_Aedes_hensilli_as_an_epidemic_vector_ L2 - http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9574802 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -