Urolithiasis in dogs. II: Breed prevalence, and interrelations of breed, sex, age, and mineral composition.Am J Vet Res. 1998 May; 59(5):630-42.AJ
To analyze selected breed-related data for canine urinary calculi.
11,000 specimens: 5,781 from female dogs, 5,215 from males, and 4 from dogs of unrecorded sex.
Information was compiled for all canine urinary calculi submitted between July 1981 and January 1994. Results for a mixed-breed group and 26 of the most common breeds of stone-forming dogs were analyzed. Interrelations of breed, sex, and age of affected dogs and mineral composition of the specimens were determined.
Prevalence of 5 specific mineral types was significantly correlated between the sexes of 27 common breed groups: struvite, calcium phosphate (apatite), calcium oxalate, brushite, and urate. Struvite-containing calculi were seen in high proportions in both sexes of 7 breeds, and in low proportions in both sexes of 7 other breeds. Male and female Lhasa Apsos, Cairn Terriers, and 5 other breeds had high proportions of oxalate-containing calculi; values in males were substantially higher. Low numbers of oxalate-containing calculi were seen in both sexes of 7 breeds; Dalmatians had the lowest numbers. Males and females of 6 breeds had high numbers of urate-containing calculi, Dalmatians and English Bulldogs had the highest numbers. Low amounts of urate were found in calculi from males and females of 6 breeds, Samoyeds had the lowest numbers. Highest proportions of cystine-containing calculi were seen in male Dachshunds, English Bulldogs, and Chihuahuas. Males of 8 breeds had no specimens that contained cystine; only 2 such specimens were obtained from females.
Prevalence of uroliths differs among breed, age, and sex of affected dogs.
Breed, sex, and age of dogs; mineral types of calculi in males versus females; and their anatomic location within the tract are important considerations for clinicians when evaluating risk in dogs with urolithiasis and in identifying areas that need further in-depth applied or clinical investigation, or both.