Urolithiasis in dogs. III: Prevalence of urinary tract infection and interrelations of infection, age, sex, and mineral composition.Am J Vet Res. 1998 May; 59(5):643-9.AJ
To compile and statistically analyze selected data from a large number of canine urinary calculus specimens that were subjected to quantitative, layer-by-layer mineral analysis.
11,000 canine urinary calculus specimens. 5,781 from female dogs, 5,215 from male dogs, and 4 from dogs of unrecorded sex.
Records of the Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California were used to compile information regarding all canine urinary calculus specimens submitted for analysis between July 1981 and January 1994. Interrelations of sex and age of the affected dogs, mineral composition of the specimens, and associated urinary tract infections were analyzed statistically.
Urolithiasis was associated with growth of bacteria isolated from urine or calculi, or both, in 65% of females and nearly 44% of males. Staphylococcus intermedius was isolated most often from either sex (54% for females, 30% for males). In addition to staphylococci, 22 other bacterial species were isolated from specimens from females, and 17 other bacterial species and 1 species of yeast were isolated from males. A single bacterial species was isolated from 87.6% of cultures from females and from nearly 90% of cultures from males. Among females, nearly 98% of pure cultures of staphylococci were associated with calculi that contained struvite; this was true for 80% of pure cultures of staphylococci from males.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
There are wide sex differences in prevalence of urolithiasis- and specific mineral-associated bacterial infections. In several instances, bacterial infections were significantly related to urinary calculus location. These variables should be considered in any evaluation of canine patients that have uroliths.