Anatomic repair of corrected transposition or atrio-ventricular discordance: report of 8 cases.Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1998; 13(2):117-23EJ
It is well recognized that a right ventricle (RV) may eventually fail if working as systemic. This has led to arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries (TGA), but more recently to anatomic correction of 'corrected transposition' or atrio-ventricular discordance (AVD) combining an atrial switch and a ventricular outflow repair (arterial switch or Rastelli type).
We report here 8 cases of such anatomic correction of AVD in patients from 3 months to 10 years. Of these patients, 6 had situs solitus, and 2 situs inversus; 7 patients had a ventricular septal defect (VSD); 5 had an increased pulmonary flow, and 3 had a decreased pulmonary flow with pulmonary stenosis (PS) or pulmonary atresia (PA). In all, 6 had discordant and 1 had concordant ventriculo-arterial (VA) relations, and 1 had double-outlet RV, 2 had an associated coarctation, and 1 had a cor triatriatum. Of the 8 patients, 5 had pulmonary artery hypertension, 3 a moderate to severe tricuspid insufficiency and 6 had undergone one or more previous operations. Correction was done between 3 months and 10 years of age, with 7 having a Senning procedure (twice left-sided) and 1 a Mustard type operation. VA outflows were repaired with: 4 arterial switches, 1 left ventricle to aorta rerouting, 1 right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) repair and 2 Rastelli. A tricuspid annuloplasty was done once.
All patients survived the operation, but 2 patients needed a reoperation (both successful): late obstruction of pulmonary venous channel after a left-sided Senning, and residual VSD closure. Mean follow-up is 45 months (3-122). Of the 8 patients, 6 patients are in sinus rhythm, 2 have junctional rhythm. A patient with junctional rhythm and occasional tachycardia died suddenly 18 months after surgery 1 week after satisfactory evaluation. All have a normal left ventricle function as evidenced by echocardiography.
Despite a more demanding procedure, the 'anatomic repair' of hearts with AVD is possible, even in infancy, with good early and mid-term result. Despite the potential late rhythmic problems of the Senning operation (somehow more frequent with AVD in our experience), it may become, with increasing experience, the procedure of choice in corrected transposition.