Plasma and urinary kinetics of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein after a single soy meal in humans.Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 May; 67(5):867-72.AJ
The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion patterns of the soy isoflavones daidzein and genistein in humans. Six healthy men with a mean age of 37 y and a mean body mass index (in kg/m2) of 24 consumed a soybean flour-based meal on two occasions approximately 6 d apart. Blood samples and total urine were collected at intervals for the measurement of daidzein and genistein with HPLC. Isoflavone concentrations rose slowly and reached maximum values of 3.14 +/- 0.36 micromol/L at 7.42 +/- 0.74 h for daidzein and 4.09 +/- 0.94 micromol/L at 8.42 +/- 0.69 h for genistein. Elimination half-lives were 4.7 +/- 1.1 and 5.7 +/- 1.3 h for daidzein and genistein, respectively. The slow increase in plasma concentrations is consistent with the facilitation of absorption by hydrolysis in the small and large intestines of the glycosidic forms of the isoflavones present in soybean-containing foods to their corresponding aglycones. The rate of urinary excretion of daidzein was greater than that of genistein throughout the postmeal period, with mean recoveries of 62 +/- 6% and 22 +/- 4% (P < 0.001) for daidzein and genistein, respectively. However, the ratio of the areas under the plasma concentration versus time curves for genistein and daidzein was equal to the ratio of the concentrations of the respective isoflavones in the soy meal. It is concluded that the bioavailabilities of daidzein and genistein are similar, not withstanding the difference in urinary excretion.