[Acute otitis media in the first year of life and its relationship with various risk factors].An Esp Pediatr. 1997 Nov; 47(5):473-7.AE
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of acute otitis media (OMA) in our city (urban population) during the first year of life and its relationship to some risk factors.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
This is a retrospective study of 240 children. We collected information about risk factors (sex, gestational age, birthweight, duration of breastfeeding, older siblings, parental smoking and nursery care). We related these to the number of OMA episodes during the first year of life.
Of the infants studied 40% had suffered at least one episode of OMA during the first year of life. There was a higher incidence during winter and spring. Three out of every four episodes occurred after six months of age. The incidence of OMA was strongly associated to whether there were older siblings (odds ratio: 1.98) and to the male sex (odds ratio: 1.98). Children in the breastfed group (exclusive breastfeeding for at least 5 months) have less otitis episodes than the milk-adapted formula group, but the difference was not statistically different (0.41 +/- 0.68 vs 0.69 +/- 1.01 episodes; p = 0.11).
In our report, the only risk factor strongly related with OMA in suckling infants are the presence of older siblings and the male sex. Breastfeeding did not have a protective effect in comparison to commercial formula, although a prospective study might be of interest for further addressing this issue.