Oral topotecan given once or twice daily for ten days: a phase I pharmacology study in adult patients with solid tumors.Clin Cancer Res. 1998 May; 4(5):1153-8.CC
Prolonged exposure to topotecan (TPT) in in vitro experiments and in vivo studies in animals yielded the highest antitumor efficacy. An oral bioavailability of TPT of 32-44% enables convenient prolonged administration. Because of unpredictable diarrhea in the third week of the twice daily (b.i.d.) 21-day schedule of p.o. administered TPT and the finding of optimal down-regulation of topoisomerase I level after 10-14 days in mononuclear peripheral blood cells, a shorter period of administration (10 days) was chosen for Phase I and pharmacological studies of oral administration of TPT. Adult patients with malignant solid tumors that were refractory to standard forms of chemotherapy were entered. Two dose schedules were studied: once daily (o.d.) and b.i.d. administration for 10 days every 3 weeks. TPT o.d. for 10 days was studied at dose levels 1.0, 1.4, and 1.6 mg/m2/day, and dose levels were 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8 mg/m2 with the 10-day b.i.d. schedule. Pharmacokinetics were performed on days 1 and 8 of the first course using a validated high-performance liquid chromatographic assay and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic methods. Nineteen patients were entered in the 10-day o.d. schedule, with a total of 48 courses given. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was reached at 1.6 mg/m2/day and consisted of common toxicity criteria (CTC) grade IV thrombocytopenia and CTC grade III diarrhea. The maximum tolerated dose was 1.4 mg/m2/day. In the 10-day b.i.d. administration of TPT, a total of 64 courses were studied in 20 patients. DLT was reached at a dose of 0.8 mg/m2 b.i.d. and consisted of CTC grade IV myelosuppression and CTC grade IV diarrhea. The maximum tolerated dose was 0.7 mg/m2 b.i.d. Nonhematological toxicities with both schedules included mild nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and anorexia. Pharmacokinetics revealed a substantial variation of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of TPT lactone in both schedules. Significant correlations were observed between the myelotoxicity parameters and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve at day 1 of TPT lactone o.d. and b.i.d. The DLT of 10 daily administrations of oral topotecan every 3 weeks consisted of a combination of myelosuppression and diarrhea for both schedules studied. The recommended doses for Phase II studies are 1.4 mg/m2/day for 10 days for the o.d. administration and 0.7 mg/m2 for the b.i.d. schedule.